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Neoplasm Path 1

QuestionAnswer
Neoplasm that does not metastasize? Benign
Neoplasm that exhibits a slow expansive local growth Benign
Neoplasm that exhibits a more rapid growth Malignant
Tumor that shows locally invasive destructive growth Malignant
Which neoplasm may mets through the lyphatics or blood stream Malignant
Tumor growth at a separate site from the site of origin Metastasis
How can tumor cells be carried to other tissues lympatics or blood
What is Angiogenesis? Enchrochment on bloodstream & using its supply for growth
T or F Most tumors have the ability to undergo Angiogenesis TRUE
Gerneral term for a malignant tumor of any type cancer
Benign or malignant: carcinoma Malignant (tumor of epithelial origin)
Prefix adeno indicates Glandular epithelial origin
Benign or malignant: adenoma Benign
Benign or malignant: adenocarcinoma malignant
Benign or malignant: Rhabdomyoma Benign (rhabdo-> striated muscle)
Benign or malignant: Fibroma bening (fibrous CT)
Benign or malignant: Liposarcoma Malignant (fat cells)
Benign or malignant: Meningioma vs Invasive meningioma Bening, Malignant
Benign or malignant: osteoma benign (bone)
Malignant tumor of Hematopoietic cells Leukemias
Malignant tumor of lymph vessels Lymphangiosarcoma
Benign and malignant tumor blood vessels Hemangioma, angiosarcoma
Broder's grade of malignant tumors is a scale of Grade 1-4
Does a Grade 1 malignant tumor resemble the cell of origin? Yes
What does a Grade 4 malignant tumor resemble Very little or no resemblance to the cell of origin (ANAPLASTIC)
T or F the higher the grade, more aggressive the tumor TRUE
Define neoplastic change histologic change showing cellular dysplasia
Can cells be mildy displastic and still be benign? yes, ex--> benign adenomatous colonic polyp
When cellular dysplasia becomes more severe it transitions into Malignancy
CIN cervical intraepithelial neoplasia classified as CIN I vs CIN III CIN I mild dysplasia, CIN III squamous cell carinoma (malignant change but no cellylar invasion to adj tissues)
What are the primary skin malignant tumors (3) Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, Malignant melanoma
What are the 5 suggestive signs of possible malignant change in melanocytic nevus ABCDE--> Asym difference in color, Borders are irregular, Color is darkened, Diameter >6mm, Enlargement or Elevation
How is the stage of widespread of a tumor in the body described Stage 0-IV
Stage 0 means an in situ tumorthe has not invaded
Stage IV means Wide spread tumor that has mets by blood&Lymphatics
TNM system of staging mal tumors, what does each letter stand for T- describes Size of primary tumor, N indicates presence or absence of lymph node spread and extent, M presence of hematogenous mets and extent
What are the 5 most common metastases sites Adernal, Brain, Liver, Lung, Bone
Control of cell growth involves what 5 types of proteins Growth Factors, GF receptors, Intracellular Signal Transfucers, Transcription Factors, Cell Cycle control Protein
Purpose of the Intracellular Signal Transducers Take the message into the cell nucleus
Purpose of the Transcription factors Proteins that attach to DNA and initiate transcription
what is Protooncogene normal gene that encodes one of the 5 protein that control cell cycle (control neoplastic growth)
What are Oncogenes altered (mutated) proto-ongcogene, protein product is involved in neoplastic transformation, uncontrolled cell growth resulting in a tumor
What ratio of Proto-oncogenes to oncogenes are required for neoplastic transformation slide 13*******
How do Oncogenes differ from Proto-oncogenes? Mutated, Over expressed or too much of expressed protein is produced, expressed at inapproproate time and or place in the cell
What gene encodes a protein that prevents cell from going from G1 to the S phase RB gene
What tumor suppresor gene is often mutated in human cancers TP53
What gene prevents cells from cucling mitosing when they shouldn’t TP53
5 DNA viruses that contain members which my be oncogenic HPV, Polyoma virus, Adenovirus, Herpes virus, Hepatitis B&C
EBV epstein-barr virus is an example of herpes virus
Oncogenic meaning Tumor producing
How do oncogenic DNA viruses result in neoplastic transformation of the cells the oncogenic transforming genes from the viruses are inserted into the DNA of the virus infect cell, when they are expressed resulting proteins cause neoplastic transformation
Which phase of the cell cycle are proteins needed for mitosis produced? (G2) Gap 2 phase
Proteins that cause regulation of cell cycle (4) cyclins, CDKs, CDK inhibitors, p53 gene
what is oncogenesis genetic mechansim whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells
Result of carcinogenic agent on normal cell DNA damage
what occurs if there is failure of DNA repair (3) Activation of growth promoting oncogenes, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, alteration in genes that control Apoptosis
unregulated cell differentiation and growth will lead to malignant neoplasm
What genes are affected in oncogenesis (4) Replication, DNA repair, Cell growth, Cell death
Causes of Oncogenesis multifactorial: chemicals, radiation, viruses… thalidomide, radon, asbestos
Normal growth promoting regulator gene Proto-oncogenes
Gene normally only turned on when growth is needed Proto-oncogenes
mutation in proto-oncogenes --> oncogene--> abnormal uncontrolled cell growth (neoplasia)
Anti- oncogenes growth inhibiting regulator gene (normally always turned on)
What is an example of an Anti-oncogene p53
What steps occur and what is involved in tumor cell transformation Normal cell, carcinogenic agent--> DNA damage, activation of oncogenes--> Malignant tumor
Examples of chemical carinogenes procarinogenes: Aflatoxin B1 (rotten peanutes), alcohol, asbestos, smoked foods, azo dyes, nitrosamine
Cachexia clinical manifestation Unexplained weight loss, extreme waisting
Define paraneoplastic syndromes cancers that are causing release of Hormones
SIADH is ass. w/ small cell lung cancer
Cushings syndrome is ass. w/ small cell lung cancer
Hypercalcemia is ass. w/ lung, head, neck, ovarian cancers
Venous thromnosis is ass. w/ pancreatic and lung cancers
Myasthenia gravis is ass. w/ autoimmune production of antibodies against the moto end plate
Eaton-Lambert syndrome is ass. w/ antibodies against the voltage gated calcium channels in the presynaptic terminal (extreme muscular weakness)
Diagnostic Methods (7) X-ray, Ultrasound, MRI, CT scan, PET scan, Endoscopy, Pap test
Tumor markers in blood and urine PSA, AFP, CEA, Calcitonin, CA-125, CA-19-9
PSA marker is ass. w/ prostate cancer
AFP (alpha fetal protein is ass. w/ Liver cancer
CEA marker is ass. w/ Colorectal and stomach
Calcitonin marker is ass. w/ thyroid cancer
CA-125 is ass. w/ ovarian cancer
CA-19-9 is ass. w/ Pancreas, colon cancer
What type of cancer treatments are availible Chemotherapy, Hormone therapy, biotherapy, targeted therapy, surgery, radiation
what type of therapy can reach primary and secondary sites but are toxic to fast dividing cells chemotherapy
Injection of or stimulation of I.S. cells in immunotherapy is which type of treatment biotherapy
what type of cancer treatmet can be helpful in palliative care radiation
Created by: kfrancis