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9th Grade SS

SS unit 1

Old Stone Age a prehistoric era; first stone tools
Homosapiens the biological species to which modern human beings belong
Hunter Gatherers nomadic group; food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods
Agricultural Revolution the domestication of crops and animals as a food source; Community grown food by human groups in the Neolithic period (approximately 10,000 to 8,000 BC
nomadic wandering from place to place search of food or water
archaeology the scientific study material remains and of past human life and activities
anthropology a science that tries to recreate a picture of early peoples cultural behavior - customs, family life, and social relationships
plate techtonics the crust of the earth is composed crustal plates moving on the molten material below
Great Rift Valley extends 4000 miles from the Middle East to Mozambique in East Africa formed by plate tectonics
cultural diffusion the spread if ideas or products from one culture to another
ethnocentrism the belief that your own cultural values and customs are superior to all others
Fertile Crescent an arc of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea
Sumer an area in the southern region of Babylonia in present day Iraq; site of the Sumerian civilization of city-states that flowered during the third millennium BC
Cuneiform a system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3,000 B.C.
Code of Hammurabi 282 laws regulated economic, social, and moral affairs in Babylon about 1700 BC
ziggurat a tiered, pyramid- shaped structure that formed part of a Sumerian temple
tigris and euphrates river two rivers located in Mesopatamia -land between 2 rivers
polytheism a belief in many gods
monotheism a belief in a single god
nile river longest river up to 4,000 miles long
pharaoh a king in ancient Egypt, considered as a god as well as a political and military leader
hieroglyphs an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
Narmer Palette A significant Egyptian archaeological find found around the 31st century BC earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found
Rosetta Stone Discovered in 1799 by a French soldier along the bank of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, used to translate the Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Harappa A city located in the Indus Valley civilization
Mohenjo-Daro A city located in the Indus Valley civilization
Great Bath Architectural structure located at Mohenjo-Daro of the Indus Valley civilization
Aryans An Indo-European people who, about 1500 B.C. began to migrate into the Indian Subcontinent
delta A marshy region formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of a river
Yellow River (Huang He) A river that runs through northern China, "River of Sorrow" because of frequent flooding
dynastic cycle The historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties in China.
bronze ritual vessels Chinese Shang and Zhou dynasty bronze artifacts by archaeologist; used for religious rituals.
Mandate of Heaven In Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority
oracle bones In ancient China pieces of bone or turtle shell used by Shang priests to tell the future. They would write a question addressed to either one of the gods, or an ancestor on the bone, then heat it until it cracked
ancestor worship Worship of the dead based on the belief that the deceased, often family members, have a continued existence and/or possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living; practiced in China
Hammurabi Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 B.C.) Famous for first written law
Hammurabi's Code First written law of the Sumerians placed in center of city for all to see; eye for an eye ideology
Created by: pieronek
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