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Fisher USCourt Cases

US History Regents Review Court Cases

TermDefinition
Marbury v Madison 1803 case. Judicial Review, Supreme Court can decide if a law violates the Constitution
McCulloch v Maryland 1819 case. Federal government has supremacy over state governments, National Bank is constitutional
Gibbons v Ogden 1824 case. Only federal government can regulate interstate trade
Dred Scott v Sandford 1857 case. Slaves deemed property, not citizens. Missouri Compromise unconstitutional for denying citizens their property
Cherokee Nation v Georgia 1831 case. Supreme Court doesn't have jurisdiction to hear cases from Indian nations because they are not US citizens
Worcester v Georgia 1832 case. Requiring a license for a Native American to live on a reservation is unconstitutional
Plessy v Ferguson 1896 case. Legalized segregation, under 14th amendment public facilities may be separate but equal
Schenck v US 1919 case. Free speech can be limited during wartime if it causes clear and present danger
Korematsu v US 1944 case. Relocation of Japanese-Americans to internment camps is legal to protect US from potential threat
Brown v Board of Education 1954 case. Segregation in public high schools is illegal, separate is not equal
Mapp v Ohio 1961 case. Due process, illegally obtained evidence can't be used in trial
Gideon v Wainright 1961 case. Due process, right to a lawyer, provided for free if needed
Escobedo v Illinois 1964 case. Due process, suspects have right to an attorney during questioning
Miranda v Arizona 1966 case. Due process, suspects must be informed of Constitutional rights before being questioned
Roe v Wade 1973 case. Abortion legal due to Constitutional right to privacy
US v Nixon 1974 case. Executive privilege can't be used unless it involves national security
Gregg v Georgia - Death Penalty 1976 case. Death penalty does NOT violate 8th amendment, is NOT cruel and unusual punishment
Furman v Georgia - Death Penalty 1972 case. Death penalty does violate 8th amendment, IS cruel and unusual punishment
Engel v Vitale 1962 case. Prayer in public school banned, violated separation of church and state and freedom of religion
NY Times v US 1971 case. New York Times can publish Pentagon Papers about US role in Vietnam because of freedom of speech
Heart of Atlanta Motel v US 1964 case. Government CAN regulate private business if their services affect interstate commerce, no discrimination allowed
Chief Justice John Marshall Supreme Court Chief Justice. Court established Judicial Review, rulings strengthened the power of Federal government
Homer Plessy He was arrested for refusing to obey segregation rules on train. Supreme Court allowed "separate but equal" segregation
Dred Scott He wad a slave who argued for freedom when owners moved to free state. Court declared slaves were property, not citizens
Charles Schenck He opposed draft in WWI, arrested under Espionage Act. Supreme Court ruled free speech can be restricted during war
Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes He ruled that free speech can be limited if it presents a "clear and present danger"
Chief Justice Earl Warren His Court decisions supported the right of accused persons
Tennessee v John Scopes 1925 case. Also known as the "Monkey Trial", science teacher charged with violating law against teaching evolution.
Created by: fisher_lisa