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Civil War Causes

Mrs. Barr's Social Studies Class 8th Grade

TermDefinitionDefinition 2 (If Necassary)
Missouri Compromise ~Occurred in 1820 ~Maine was admitted to the Union as a free state and Missouri was entered a slave state ~All of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri, except Missouri, would be free
Nullification Doctrine During Jackson’s presidency Written in the style of the Articles of Confederation by John C. Calhoun as a result of the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 Calhoun argued that the Constitution was an agreement amongst sovereign states Declared that states could block the enforcement of federal laws Declared that if the federal government intervened to collect the tariff, then South Carolina would secede from the Union
Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 Congress passed a high tariff on goods Proceeds of the tariff would help the North exclusively South Carolina proclaimed these to be null and void If the government intervened to collect the tariff, then South Carolina would secede Unable to win support for its position from other states, South Carolina repealed its tariff nullification
Compromise of 1850 Disagreement occurred because of the territory gained from the Mexican War Agreement brokered by Henry Clay, “The Great Compromiser” Included the stipulation that California enter the Union as a free state Passage of this law included a strong fugitive slave law – most controversial part of the bill Banned the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
Fugitive Slave Law Stated that a slave catcher was to bring his captive before a federal commissioner All that was required for a slave-owner or any white witness to swear that the suspect was the slave-owner's property Enraged Northerners ~Required U.S. Marshals to aid in capturing escaped slaves Payment guidelines for the slave catchers and commissioner were viewed as unfair and prejudiced Federal government, as decreed, was responsible for the cost/expenses of catching escaped slaves
Kansas-Nebraska Act Law engineered by Stephan Douglas Slavery in these territories would be decided by popular sovereignty Resulted in “Bleeding Kansas,” in which proslavery and antislavery settlers clashed Kansas, as a result, had two governments Frustration and tension from this act led to violence in the U.S. Senate, when a congressman physically assaults a senator
John Brown's Raid An antislavery settler from Connecticut who committed violence in Kansas before his raid His goal was to raise an army and then free enslaved people in the South Unsuccessful slave revolt at Harpers Ferry in Virginia Hanged for treason in 1859 Northerners considered this person a maytr
Lincoln-Douglas Debate Between Republican candidate (Lincoln) and Democratic senator (Douglas) Met in small Illinois towns to share their views on slavery should not be spread to the new Western territories  Made Abraham Lincoln famous throughout the country ~“A house divided against itself cannot stand” Douglas promoted popular sovereignty Gave speeches stating that slavery
Dred Scott Decision  Dred Scott was a black man  Sued for his freedom on the grounds that he had lived where slavery was illegal  The Supreme Court rules that no black man, free or slave, was a U.S. citizen; Scott was considered property  Stated that Congress never that the right to ban slavery in the territories  Made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional  that no black man had the right to sue in federal court  Supreme Court ruled against Scott on two grounds
The Election of 1860 John Breckinridge is the leading candidate in the South Lincoln won in every free state, but he only received 40% of the popular vote In response, South Carolina secedes, followed by six more states
US-Mexican War  President Polk sends General Taylor to provoke Mexican troops  U.S. wanted to annex Texas (idea of Manifest Destiny) War was very popular with Americans  Receive land from the Mexican Cession, for which the U.S. paid $18 million  Led to the Wilmot Proviso, in which legislation was passed trying to prevent slavery in the territories gained from the war ~Prior to the skirmish, Texas territory secedes from Mexico  Captured Mexico City
Nat Turner's Raid Slave revolt that occurred in Virginia in 1831 Resulted in the passage of aggressive slave laws, including the prohibition to teach slaves to read and write Led by an educated, African American preacher
Created by: argetty