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7th S.S. Chap 2

Chapter 2 Earth's Physical Geography

TermDefinition
core area at the center of the Earth, which includes a solid inner core and a hot liquid outer core
mantle Earth's thickest layer, found between the core and the crust
magma hot melted liquid inside the Earth that flows to the surface when a volcano erupts
crust uppermost layer of the earth
continent large landmass that rises above an ocean
plate tectonics scientific theory that explains how processes within the Earth form continents and cause their movement
earthquake sudden and violent movement of the Earth's crust that shakes the land, and can cause great damage
fault crack in the Earth's crust where two tectonic plates meet; prone to earthquakes
weathering process in which rock is broken into smaller pieces by water and ice, chemicals, or even plants
erosion process by which weathered bits of rock are moved elsewhere by water, wind, or ice
continental shelf plateau off of a continent that lies under the ocean and stretches for several miles
trench deep cut in the ocean floor
groundwater water that filters through the soil into the ground
aquifer underground layer of rock through which water flows
water cycle system in which water moves from the Earth to the air and back to the Earth
evaporation part of the water cycle; process by which water changes from liquid to gas
condensation part of the water cycle; process by which water changes from gas to liquid
precipitation part of the water cycle; process by which water falls to the Earth as, for example, rain or snow
collection part of the water cycle; process by which streams and rivers carry water that has fallen to the earth back to the oceans
weather changes in temperature, wind speed and direction, and air moisture that take place over a short period of time
climate pattern of weather that takes place in an area over many years
prevailing wind wind patterns that are similar over time
current steadily flowing stream of water in the ocean
El Nino weather phenomenon marked by very heavy rains in western South America, often causing flooding; reduced rainfall in Southern Asia, Australia, and Africa; and severe storms in North America
La Nina weather phenomenon marked by unusually cool water in the eastern Pacific and low amounts of rainfall there and heavier rains - and a greater chance of typhoons - in the western Pacific
local wind wind pattern typical of a small area
rain shadow effects of mountains that blocks rain from reaching interior regions
climate zone areas that have similar patterns of temperature and rainfall, and may have similar vegetation
biome area that includes particular kinds of plants and animals adapted to conditions there
urban climate weather patterns in cities, including higher temperatures and distinct wind patterns, as compared to nearby rural areas
smog thick haze of smoke and chemicals
acid rain chemicals from air pollution that combine with precipitation
greenhouse effect buildup of certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere that, like a greenhouse, retain the sun's warmth
crop rotation changing what crops farmers plant in a field from year to year
deforestation cutting down the forests without replanting new trees
conservation careful use of resources to avoid wasting them
irrigation process of collecting water and distributing it to crops
pesticide powerful chemicals that kill crop-destroying insects
ecosystem place shared by plants and animals that depend on one another for survival
biodiversity variety of plants and animals living on the planet
Created by: veroncia.crim
 

 



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