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DU PA Urinalysis

Duke PA Urinalysis

Normal appearance clear
normal color amber yellow
normal odor aromatic
normal pH 4.6-8.0 avg 6.0
normal protein ___ mg/dL 0-8
normal protein ___ mg/24 hr at rest 50-80
normal protein ___ mg/24 hr during exercise <250
normal specific gravity adult 1.005-1.030
normal specific gravity elderly values decrease with age
normal specific gravity newborn 1.001-1.020
normal leukocyt esterase negative
normal nitrates none
normal ketones none
normal bilirubin none
normal urobilinogen ___ Ehrlich unit/mL 0.01-1
normal crystals none
normal casts none
normal glucose (fresh specimen) none
normal glucose (24 hr)___mg/day 50-300
normal glucose (24 hr)___mmol/day (SI units) 0.3-1.7
normal WBC ___ per low-power field 0-4
normal WBC casts none
normal RBC's < or = 2
normal RBC casts none
____ infection may cause green urine Pseudomonas
patients with ____ may have the strong sweet smell of acetone diabetic ketoacidosis
Bacteria, UTI, or a diet high in citrus fruits or vegetables may cause increased urine pH
starvation, dehydration, or a diet high in meat products or cranberries may cause decreased urine pH
to prevent or treat urinary calculi from xanthine, cystine, uric acid, and calcium oxalate urine pH should be kept alkaline
to treat urinary calculi from calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and magnesium phosphate urine pH should be kept acidic
the combination of proteinuria adn edema is known as nephrotic syndrome
probably the most important indicator of kidney disease proteinuria
proteinuria in pregnant women can indicate preeclampsia
a measure of the concentration of particles in the urine specific gravity
used to evaluate the concentrating and excretory powers of the kidneys specific gravity
high specific gravity indicates concentrated urine
low specific gravity indicates dilute urine
when a person is dehydrated one can expect the specific gravity of that person to be abnormally high
Positive results indicate UTI leukocyte esterase
is a screening test for identification of UTI's nitrites
Nitrite test is about ___% accurate 50
leukocyte esterase is about ___% accurate 90
_____ is usually associated with poorly controlled diabetes ketonuria
can be present in the following conditions; alcoholism, fasting, starvation, high protein diets, isopranol ingestion ketonuria
may occur in acute febrile illnesses, especially in infants and children ketonuria
obstruction of a bile duct by a gallstone will lead to elevated urine bilirubin
bilirubin in the urine will color it dark yellow or orange
by themselves, crystals cause no symptoms until they form stones
stones only produce symptoms when they obstruct the urinary tract
crystals may indicate the formation of a renal stone
occur in the urine of patients with parathyroid abnormalities or malabsorption states phosphat and calcium oxalate crystals
clumps of materials or cells that form in the renal distal and collection tubules, where material is maximally concentrated casts
for ___ to form the pH must be acidic and the urine concentrated casts
conglomerations of protein and are indicative of proteinuria, a few may be present after strenuous exercise hyaline casts
sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, BUN, creatinine, glucose, GFR components of the chem 7 at Duke
normal sodium ____ mmol/L 135-145
normal potassium ____ mmol/L 3.2-4.8
normal chloride ____ mmol/L 98-108
normal carbon dioxide ____ mmol/L 21-30
normal urea nitrogen ___ mg/dL 7-21
normal creatinine ___ mg/dL 0.7-1.4
increased BUN is called uremia
decreased renal blood flow prerenal uremia
urea backed up into blood from lower urinary obstruction postrenal uremia
diseases or toxicities that affect glomeruli, renal microvascular or tubules renal uremia
proportional to muscle mass, usually higher in men than women serum creatinine
stable in health at a ratio of 1:10 BUN:creatinine ratio
lower in liver disease, starvation, acute tubular necrosis BUN:creatinine ratio
Higher (with normal Cr) in prerenal uremia, high protein diet, GI bleed BUN:creatinine ratio
Higher (with high Cr is called “azotemia”) in renal disease & failure BUN:creatinine ratio
can be caused by preeclampsia, multiple myeloma, temperature extremes, fever, exercise, position, stress proteinuria
main cause of glycosuria diabetes
product of fat breakdown ketones
product of hemoglobin breakdown bilirubin
a few hyaline casts on urinalysis is normal
RBC casts acute glomerulonephritis
WBC casts acute pyelonephritis
epithelial casts tubular necrosis
granular casts nephrotic syndrome, pyelonephritis
waxy casts tubular atrophy, renal failure
bacterial casts pyelonephritis
fatty casts proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome
___ can be estimated by blood level of creatinine GFR
___ indicates level of kidney function GFR
___ calculations do not apply in acute situations or in patients on dialysis GFR
Created by: bwyche