Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Hypertension

Adult Health II

QuestionAnswer
normal BP range <120 S---<80 D
pre-HTN BP range 120-139 S---80-89 D
HTN Stage 1 BP range 140-159 S---90-99 D
HTN Stage 2 BP range > or = 160 S---> or = 100 D
what is peripheral vascular resistance? vessel constriction or dilation, which is controlled by autonomic nervous system and the hormones--epinephrine and norepinephrine
what is a stroke volume? amount of blood ejected from the heart per beat
what is the normal cardiac output range? 5-7 L/min
what is arteriosclerosis? the thickening or hardening of the arterial walls
what increases CO? increased heart rate and increased blood volume
what increases peripheral vascular resistance? factors that increase blood viscosity (such as dehydration) and factors that decrease vessel diameter (such as caffenine, nicotine, meds)
what makes smoking a RF for HTN? vasoconstriction, increased carbon monoxide levels, and increased platelet adhesion which may lead to thrombus formation
what race is at higher risk for HTN? AA and Indians
25% of cardiac OP goes where? kidneys
What are some RF for secondary HTN? renal vascular and parenchymal disease, primary aldosteronism, coarctation of the aorta. meds such as BC (estrogen), antihistamines, and erythropoetin
what are some common signs of HTN? HA, dizziness, or fainting
how do you check for orthostatic hypotension? take a BP reading while pt supine or sitting, then 2 min later take while standing
what BP reading shows orthostatic hypotension? a decrease in BP 20 S or 10 D when pt changes positions
what diagnostic assessment indicates renal disease? hematuira, proteinuria, elevated BUN, and creatinine
what diagnostic assessment may indicate cardiomegaly? chest x-ray
what diagnostic assessment shows left artial and left ventricular enlargement? x-ray and ECG
what is the Na restriction for HTN pt? less than 2300mg/day
if a pt has a BMI ___ or higher weight loss is encouraged 25
HTN with a BMI of 25 or higher should lose weight and have a diet consisting of ___ fat, ____ sat. fat, ___ cholesterol less than 30% fat, less than 10% sat fat, and less than 300mg/day cholesterol
HTN pt should limit slcohol intake to ___ no more than 1 oz of ethanol daily= 2 oz liquor, 8 oz wine, 24 oz beer
what is suggested for exerise with HTN pt? start slow---30-45 min 3-5 times/week
what are 3 types of diuretics? thiazides, loop, and K-sparing
what are 4 types of pharmacologic therapies for HTN? diuretics, Ca Channel Blockers, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs
what is the least potent diuretic? thiazides
what do thiazides do? they prevent Na and water reabsorption in the DISTAL TUBULES and promote K excretion---so basically they help get rid of water, Na, and K
what are pt taking a thiazide diuretic at risk for? hyponatriemia, hypovolemia, and hypokalemia
what are 2 types of thiazide diuretics? hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)--Esidrix/HydroDiuril AND Chlorothiazide-- Diuril
what is the strongest diuretic? loop diuretics
what do loop diuretics do? they depress Na reabsorption in ASCENDING LOOP OF HENLE and promote K excretion---basically they get rid of water, Na, and K
what are pt taking a loop diuretic at risk for? hyponatremia, hypovolemia, and hypokalemia
what are 2 types of loop diuretic? furosemide (Lasix) and Bumetamide (Bumex)
what do K-sparing diuretics do? they act on DISTAL TUBULE to inhibit Na reabsorption in exchange for K, thereby retaining K---so basically they get rid of water and Na and keep K
what are pt taking a K-sparing diuretic at risk for? hyponatremia, hypovolemia, and HYPERkalemia
what are 2 types of K-sparing diuretics? spironolactone (aldactone) and trimterene (Dyrenium)
what are the signs of hyponatremia and hypokalemia? irregular pulse and muscle weakness
what do Ca channel blockers do? they interfere with transmembrane flux of Ca ions...so basically they block Ca from entering the tissue
what is the result of Ca channel blockers? vasdilation and decrease BP
what are 4 types of Ca channel blockers? VERY NICE DRUGS ALWAYS---verapamil (calan, calan-SR, lsoptin), dilitaizem (cardizem, cardizem-SR), nicardipine (cardene, cardene-SR), and amiodipine (novasc)
if taking Ca channel blocker Dilitiazem, avoid ____ and why? grapfruit juice bc it increases the drug level and will further decrease BP
what Ca channel blocker increases the effects of Digoxin? Nicarpidine (Cardene)
Photosensitivity is a side effect for which Ca Channel blocker? Amlodipine (Norvasc)--use protective clothing
what do angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors do? they inhibit the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II---basically they are preventing the vasoconstriction that angiotensin II produces
what are 3 types of ACE inhibitors? "PRIL" DRUGS---captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), and lisinopril (zestril, prinivil)
what is a common side effect of ACE inhibitors? coughing
what do angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBS) do? they block the binding of angiotensin II in the VASCULAR and ADRENAL tissues...so basically they prevent angiotensin from doing its job
what are 3 ARBS? "SARTAN" drugs---candesarten (atacand), losartan (cozaar), and telmisarten (micardis)
what are 2 adverse side effects of ARBS? angioedema (caused by Candsarten and telmisarten and losarten can cause heart failure
which HTN drugs are used to prevent kidney disease? ARBS and ACE
which HTN drug workds best for AA? ARBS
what do aldosterone receptor antagonists do? they lower the BP by blocking aldosterone binding at the mineralocorticiod receptor site in teh kidney, heart, blood vessels, and brain...so basically receptors aren't recieving aldosterone therefore not holding in Na and water
what are the risks of taking aldosterone receptor antagonists? hyperkalemia and hyponatremia
what do beta blockers do? they block beta receptors in the heart and peripheral vessels, this reducing cardiac OP and BP
what is a beta blocker drug? "OLOL" DRUGS---propranolol (inderal)
what are the 2 types of beta blokers? cardioselective and non-cardioselective
beta I is used for ___ cardiovascular---common with HTN
beta II is used for ___ lungs
beta nonselective is used for ____ both heart and lungs = heart rate, BP, and respirations all DECREASE
what should be monitored on a pt taking a beta blocker? fatigue, weakness, depression, sexual dysfunction all due to lack of O2
what do artieral baroreceptors do? they sense changes in BP
where are arterial baroreceptors found? carotid sinus, aorta, and wall of left ventricle
if there is a rise in artial pressure (BP), the ___ nerve will be stimulated, which will cause a decrease in ____ and _____ vagal nerve.....decrease in heart rate and vasodilation
with hypertension, the ____ system does not work properly arterial baroreceptor system
increase in Na and water = ____ in BP increase
increase in cardiac OP = increase in blood to kidneys = ___ dieresis that leads to ____ in BP increase dieresis and decrease BP-->this occurs if there is normal kidney function
is released from renal cells in response to decreased BP/blood volume renin
is a powerful vasoconstrictor which will increase BP levels angiotensin II
is released from the adrenal glands and its function is to retain Na aldosterone
regulates perfusion of tissues at a constant level vascular autoregulation
what does essential HTN cause? hyperplasia (thickening) of the arterioles
Created by: TayBay15