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Fisher US Review 4

US History Regents Review Packet 4

TermDefinition
Industrialization Growth of businesses
Urbanization Growth of cities around industrial areas
Corporations Businesses owned by stockholders
Monopolies Businesses the limit competition
Social Darwinism Theory that only the best businesses would survive and others would fail
Laissez-faire Government practice of not interfering in the economy
John D Rockefeller Monopolist owner of the Standard Oil Company
Gilded Age Mark Twain's nickname for the late 1800's when serious social problems were hidden beneath growing wealth of monopolists
Trusts Another name for monopolies
Urban City area
Nativism Hostility and discrimination towards immigrants
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 law limiting Chinese immigration
Gentleman's Agreement 1907 law limiting Japanese immigration
Literacy Tests for Immigrants Barred immigrants who could not read and write English
Emergency Quota Act 1921 law drastically reducing all immigration
National Origins Act 1924 law that reduced immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, favored immigrants from Northern and Western Europe
Spanish American War 1898 conflict between the US and Spain over Cuba.
Imperialism The act of taking over another country to gain its natural resources and create new markets for trade
USS Maine American Navy ship sunk, blame placed on Spain leading to Spanish-American war
Yellow Journalism Exaggerated reporting of news to spur emotional response from readers
1898 Treaty of Paris Agreement ending the Spanish-American War and giving the US control of Puerto Rico, Philippines, and Guam
Open Door Policy 1899 Agreement with European nations to allow US access to trade in China
Spheres of Influence Areas in China where foreign nations had exclusive trading rights
Roosevelt Corollary 1904 addition to the Monroe Doctrine establishing US as police force in Latin America
Big Stick Policy Teddy Roosevelt's threat that the US would "speak softly but carry a big stick" and intervene in Latin America if necessary
Progressive Era 1890-1920 period when government increased involvement in economy and society and enforced laws to end trusts
Sherman Antitrust Act Outlawed any business combination that limited interstate trade
Clayton Antitrust Act Outlawed business practices that eliminated competition
Federal Trade Commission Federal agency created to enforce antitrust laws
Unions Groups of workers united to protect and promote workers' rights
Homestead Strike Unsuccessful strike by steelworkers against the Carnegie Steel Company
Andrew Carnegie Monopolist owner of the Carnegie Steel Company
Pullman Strike Unsuccessful strike by railroad workers against the Pullman Palace Car Company
American Federation of Labor Organization of many labor unions united in 1866 to improve working conditions
Samuel Gompers Founder of the American Federation of Labor
Populist Party Political party formed by farmers, silver miners, and manufacturers to promote their issues
Tariffs Taxes on imports
17th Amendment 1913 direct election of senators
Initiative By petition, voters can put a proposed law on a ballot to be voted on, skipping the usual legislative process
Referendum Proposed laws are submitted directly to the people for voting on, not processed through the legislative branch
Recall An official can be removed from office by popular vote
Muckrakers People who exposed corruption in businesses and the government
Upton Sinclair Author of "The Jungle" written to expose the unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry
Pure Food and Drug Act Law requiring the accurate labeling of ingredients
Meat Inspection Act Law requiring the inspection of meat and the conditions of meatpacking businesses
Jacob Riis Author and photographer of How the Other Half Lives" exposing the living conditions of the poor in tenement houses
Ida Tarbell Muckraker who exposed the abusive business practices of the Standard Oil Company
Lincoln Steffens Author of "The Shame of the Cities" about political corruption in St. Louis and other cities
Frank Norris Author of "The Octopus" written about the railroad monopolies
Created by: fisher_lisa