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Fisher US Review 1

US History Regents Review Packet 1

TermDefinition
Mercantilism Controlling trade between an imperialist nation and its colonies to benefit the mother country
Colonial Era Period of time from 1600's to 1700's when England owned the US colonies
Virginia House of Burgesses First democratically elected legislative body in the US
Mayflower Compact First written framework of government for the US. colonies. Created 1620
New England Town Meetings Meetings held in a direct democratic manner to discuss laws and issues related to a town
Direct democracy People decide on public issues instead of choosing representatives to make decisions
Representative democracy Representatives are elected to make decisions on behalf of people
Thomas Paine Wrote Common Sense in support of American independence
Common Sense Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to encourage American independence
Declaration of Independence Document written to declare the American colonies' freedom from England
Thomas Jefferson Primary writer of Declaration of Independence. Third US President 1801-1809
John Locke Enlightenment philosopher who wrote Social Contract Theory about relationship between government and citizens
Social Contract Theory John Locke's theory that government gets its power from the people and can be abolished if it abuses its power
Consent of the governed The idea that people give the government its power and agree to follow its rules unless it abuses that power
Revolutionary War War fought from 1775-1781 to achieve American independence from England
Treaty of Paris 1783 treaty officially ending the Revolutionary War
Articles of Confederation First written plan of government for the United States. Established a weak central government
Shay's Rebellion 1786 uprising of farmers in Massachusetts protesting high taxes and foreclosures
Whiskey Rebellion 1794 uprising of farmers in Pennsylvania who refused to pay an excise tax on whiskey and attacked tax collectors
Constitution The supreme law of the land. The document defines the roles of each branch of government
Federalism Power is shared between the national (federal) government and the states
Separation of Powers The power to govern is divided into three branches and each branch has specific powers
Legislative Branch Makes laws
Executive Branch Enforces laws
Judicial Branch Interprets laws
Checks and Balances Each branch has ways to limit the powers of the other two
Delegated Powers Powers belonging only to the federal government, ensured by the 10th amendment
Reserved Powers Powers belonging only to the state governments
Concurrent Powers Powers shared by the federal government and the state governments
Implied Powers Legislative powers not specifically written in the Constitution but
President Head of the Executive Branch
Commander in Chief Role of the President as head of all military forces
Electoral College System by which the President is elected
Executive Branch Branch of government responsible for enforcing laws
Judicial Branch Branch of government responsible for interpreting laws
Supreme Court Highest court in the US
Judicial Review The job of the Supreme Court to interpret laws to determine if they are constitutional
Marbury v Madison 1803 Supreme Court case that established the Court's power of judicial review
Legislative Branch Branch of government responsible for making laws
Bill a proposed law
Senate Branch of Congress in which each state has two lawmakers
Congress Another name for Legislative Branch, composed of two lawmaking groups; Senate and House of Representatives
House of Representatives Branch of Congress in which each state has a number of lawmakers based on its population
Census Population count done every 10 years. Determines how many Representatives each state gets in the House of Reps
Elastic Clause The wording in the Constitution that gives Congress flexibility to make laws which are "necessary and proper"
Great Compromise 1787 agreement determining how states would be represented in Congress
New Jersey Plan Proposal that Congress should be unicameral with equal representation of all states
Virginia Plan Proposal that Congress should be bicameral with representation of states determined by population
Three Fifths Compromise 1787 Agreement that every 5 slaves would count as 3 people in the census to determine representation in the House of Reps
Federalists Group of people who supported ratification of the Constitution and establishment of a more powerful central government
Anti-Federalists Group of people who opposed ratification of the Constitution and feared a too powerful central government
Amendments Changes to the Constitution
Federalist Essays Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison to support ratification of the Constitution
Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments to the Constitution guaranteeing basic rights
First Amendment Guarantees freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly
Created by: fisher_lisa