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Mesopotamia Test

Why is Otzi's discovery important? It offered an accurate look at what early man wore and used in everyday life
In what period of history did the Iceman live? The late stone age, late neolithic
What is the most significant aspect of Otzi's discovery? A copper ax because they didn't know copper was used back then
What modern medical problem did Neolithic man suffer from? Cholestrol
What do the high levels of arsenic found on Otzi tell us about him? Otzi was involved in copper smelting and he's a high altitude shephard
Historian? Person who studies and writes about the human past
Archaeologist? Scientist who learns about past human life by studying fossils and artifacts
Artifact? Weapon, tool, or other items made by humans
Anthropologist? Scientist who studies the physical characteristics and cultures of humans and their ancestors
Paleolithic- what did they spend the majority of their time doing? Searching for food, hunting and gathering, SURVIVING
Nomad? Person who regularly moves from place to place
What were the roles of men during the paleolithic era? Hunting
What were the roles of women during the paleolithic era? Gathering berries, looking after the kids, tending campsite (SAME AS TODAY!!!)
What was the most important discovery of the paleolithic period and its uses? Fire--- Lit darkness, kept warm, scared away animals, cooked food, smoked meat (flint started fires easily)
What were the ice ages? Lasted from 10,000 BC-8,000 BC (last part of paleolithic era), less plant life, eat struggling animals, build sturdy shelters, wearing animal furs, used fire a lot
How did paleolithic people communicate? Cave drawings, art (used for communication), there was eventually a spoken language
Technology? Tools and methods used to help humans perform tasks
What were paleolithic tools made from? Flint stones
Neolithic? Last part of the stone age, when farming started getting used
Domesticate? To tame animals and plants for human use
What was man's relationship to animals like during the neolithic age? People domesticated animals
What was the most important event in human history? Farming because it prevented people to be nomads and let families settle down; it also made it easier for the people of that time period
What were the names of the early neolithic communities we discussed in class? How do we know they were neolithic? Jericho and Catal Huyuk; they lived in mud brick houses and decorated the walls with paintings; they had buildings for worship
Specialization? Special jobs taken to assist other jobs
Mesopotamia? Land between rivers: Tigris and Euphrates; included Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires; Bronze Age
Cuneiform? Sumerian system of writing made up of wedge-shaped markings
City-state? Independent state made up of a city and the surrounding land and villages
Irrigation? Method of bringing water to a field from another place to water crops
Civilization? Complex society within city walls, organized government, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system
Where were early civilizations started? Mesopotamia
What were Sumerian temples called? What was their purpose? Sumerian temples were called Ziggurats and their purpose was to get the temple closer to the heavens
What is a scribe? Who could become one? A scribe is a person who translates and teaches Cuneiform; You had to be a wealthy, intelligent man and you had to have high class
What kinds of laws were covered in Hammurabi's Code? What two trends did we observe in class about these laws? Some laws were harsh and cruel and some were fair; Ex: If you slap your father, both of your hands would be cut off; Laws that were intentionally broken had cruel and harsh punishments while accidents had fair punishments, each one fit for the crime
What is important about Cuneiform? It is the first ever written language
Province? Political district
Astronomer? Person who studies stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies
Nineveh? Ancient Mesopotamian city located in present day Iraq; eastern bank of the Tigris river; capital of the Neo-Assyrian empire
Nebuchadnezzar? Chaldean king; threw Israelites in a fire; in old testament
Babylon? Ancient Mesopotamian city between Tigris and Euphrates river; Hammurabi controlled it for a while and started the Babylonian empire; ancestors of Chaldeans; trade and cultural center
Assyrians? Library in Nineveh; sophisticated government; postal system, highways; located in northern Mesopotamia; brutal and vital; road system; genius for war, terror tactics, no prisoners; fertile crescent region became Assyria; north near Tigris river
Sumerians? Lived in Sumer; governments; fought with each other and we know that because they had city walls; invented cuneiform; ruled by priests and priestesses; calendar; wagon wheel; buildings made of mud brick
Babylonians? Ruled by Hammurabi; Cuneiform law code; cultural crossroads; strategic location (good for trade); tower of babel; accidents had fair punishments; intentionally breaking the law resulted in cruel punishment
Chaldeans? Mapped heavens: plans of god were revealed (they thought); Nebuchadnezzar- Chaldean king: threw Israelites in fire; Babylonian descendants; rebuilt Babylon-made it wealthy; hanging gardens
Hittites? Anatolia; chariot tech- move very fast, like tanks, surrounded enemies quickly; first to use iron; vs Egypt, cadesh, old testament
Phoenicians? Eastern Mediterranean coast; north African coast; ship builders; traders; first to go beyond Gibraltar; ancestors of carthage (colony); foundation of alphabet; royal purple-symbol of wealth (purple dye was rare); purple sash with toga-sign on wealth/class
How does food surplus lead to the starting of culture? Food surplus, healthier people, more people, more crops, more farmers, bartering, specialization, more goods, surplus of goods, trade, farming tools created, metals, bronze age (3000 BC-1200 BC), more free time, cultural development
Created by: 1962116900