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Important Ideas, People, and Location of Ideas

Voltaire Ideas: religious freedom, freedom of speech, freedom of press, etc. Location: Constitution- 1st amendment
Montesquieu Ideas: checks and balances Location: Constitution- Articles 1-3
Rousseau Ideas: direct democracy Location: Declaration of Independence- Preamble
Beccaria Ideas: JUSTICE system Location: Constitution- Bill of Rights- Amendments 4-8
Locke Ideas: natural rights "life, liberty, and property," direct democracy Location: Declaration of Independence- Preamble
Wollstonecraft Ideas: fought for women's rights
Hobbes Ideas: without government there is chaos, absolute monarchy is the best form of government
philosophes group of social critics in Enlightenment France
social contract willingness of people to hand over their rights to a ruler in exchange for law and order in society
Enlightenment "new," intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of the individual to solve problems
heliocentric theory the idea that the sun is the center of the universe
Descartes linked algebra and geometry to develop analytical geometry
Kepler discovered that the Earth revolves around the Sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles
Newton discovered the law of gravity
Galileo punished by church for his scientific research
Copernicus reasoned that the stars, the Earth, and other planets revolved around the Sun
Bacon brought experimentation to the scientific method
inoculation/vaccination injecting a germ into a person's body so as to create immunity to the disease
geocentric theory the medieval view of an Earth centered universe
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence
Joseph II abolished serfdom, ruled Austria as an enlightened despot
Denis Diderot published the Encyclopedia
Frederick the Great ruled Prussia as an enlightened despot
Catherine the Great gave the nobility absolute power over the serfs, brutally crushed a massive uprising of serfs, ruled Russia as an enlightened despot
Haydn composer, 1st used sonatas and symphonies
Mozart most popular composer of his era
Beethoven composer, Romanticism
Baroque grand, ornate style of music, Bach and Handel wrote in this style
Neoclassical style of music, new emphasis on order and balance, "old school"
Richardson author, wrote Pamela, developed many of the features of the modern novel
secular nonreligious point of view



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