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Pathology 1 Exam 1

Cell Injury

What type of body cells are normally replaced at different intervals Labile cells
What type of body cells do not normally regenerate (may in certain situations) Stable cells
What type of body cellsw do not regenerate during a lifetime Permanent cells
Give 3 examples of Labile cells enterocytes, gastric & squamous epithelium
Give an example of a Stable cells Liver cells after hepatitis or partial liver donation
Give an example of a permanent cell Cardiac muscle cell
Inability of a Normal cell to adapt to stress results in Cell injury
Severe and or progressive cell injury will lead to Irreversibe cell injury
What are the 2 processes of Cell Death Necrosis, Apoptosis
Programmed cell death Apoptosis
Cell death process that induces Inflammation (DNA fragmentation) Necrosis
Cell death process that has fragmentation
1st line of defense cells neutrophils
Cell swelling is seen in which cell death process Necrosis
Fragments of apoptosis is called apoptosis body
Critical cells that undergo apoptosis Brain cells (neurons/synapses)
Important anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2
Important pro-apoptotic protein Bax
Which protein is upregulated to cause increase in cell death? pro-apoptotic
Which protein is seen in tumors/ cancers Bcl-2 (anti-apoptosis)
What are the first 2 stages of cell injury 1. Biochemical alteration, 2. Ultrastructural alteration seen with EM
What are the 3rd&4th stages of cellular injury 3. Injury seen with light microscope, 4.Grossly visible injury
Cell injury that can bee seen with light microscope is in with stage of cell injury 3
what tests are required for detecting the 1st stage of cellular injury Blood test
Reversible or Irreversible cell injury: Hydropic swelling? Reversible (water)
Reversible or Irreversible cell injury: Fatty metamorphosis? Reversible (fat in tissue)
Reversible or Irreversible cell injury: Necrosis Irreversible
What are the 6 types of necrosis Avascular, Caseous, Coagulative, fat, fibrinoid, liquefactive
Is Fatty liver due to alchohol consumption reversible? yes if discontinue use--> fat metamorphosis, but If persistent may become irreversible
What are cellular reations due to persistent stress when cells start to change Metaplasia and dysplasia
Yellow-Brown granular pigment seen in myocardium due to cell injury Lipofuscin pigment
what are the 7 cellular reations due to persistent stress Atrophy, involution, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia, Lypofuscin pigment
Cell becoming a squamous cell from a columnar cell metaplasia
Decrease in cell size atrophy
decrease in cell number involution
increase in cell size hypertrophy
increase in cell number hyperplasia
the change of one normal cell type to another normal cell type is metaplasia
microscopic cell abnormality indicating premalignant change Dysplasia
consistant metaplasia may lead to dysplastic cells
Bronchial ciliated columnar epi to squamous epithelium is metaplasia
transitional bladder epi to squamous epi metaplasia
Fibrous tissue to bone is metaplasia
may occur in uterine cervical squamous epi, columnar epi in adenomatous colon polyps Dysplasia
Prigment composed of degraded lipid and protein from brokendown organelles Lipofuscin pigment ("wear and tear pigment")
What is the danger of carcinoma crossing the basement membrane? reach blood vessels and metastasize
T or F, Lack of high fiber (&constipation) in diet can lead to dysplasia TRUE
Lipofuscin tends to occur in which cells (3) heart, liver, brain
Shrunken, programmed, fragmentation apoptosis
cell swelling, dark tissue, inflammatory necrosis
most common type of necrosis coagulative
Abscess and liquid in brain is seen in which form of necrosis liquefactive
granuloma is seen in which type of necrosis caseous
which type of necrosis is seen in small arteries and arterioles fibrinoid necrosis
Gangrene is an example of ischemia leading to________ necrosis
Specialized granuloma associated with tertiary syphilis gummatous necrosis
Ischemia is defined as reduced blood flow
infarction is tissue necrosis due to severe ischemia
Nuclear change during cell death of shrinkage w/ hperchromatism is called Pyknosis
Nuclear change during cell death of fragmentation is called karyorrhexis
Nuclear change during cell death where the Nucleus is No longer visible is called karyolysis
T or F: Karyolysis is associated with fragmentation? False, karyolysis is ass. w/ DISSOLUTION… Karyorrhexis-->fragmentation
What are the 3 cell nuclear changes occuring in necrosis (in order) 1. Pyknosis(shrink), 2.Karyorrhexis(fragment), 3.Karyolysis(dissolution)
Nucleus that is split into 2 in necrotic cell is karyorrhexis (fragmentation)
Absent nucleus in necrotic cell is karyolysis
DNA is in what form in the nucleus chromatin
Type of necrosis that occurs where there are many cells rich in lysosomes, macrophages, neutrophis Liquefactive necrosis
Released from lysosomes into surrounding tissue causing liquefaction of tissue Digestive enzymes
liquefactive necrosis mainly occurs in the ______ brain
fat necrosis is due to the action of _______ on adipocytes breaking down the ______ in the fat cell lipase, triglyceride
common example of fat necrosis acute pancreatitis--> peripancreatic fat
Which diease is associated with caseous necrosis (granuloma) Tuberculosis
Gangrene is associated with which common condition Diabetes
List the 4 layers in a granuloma from medial to lateral (inside to out) Center (caseous necrosis), Macrophages/giant cells, Lyphocytes, fibroblasts
What cell is the result from fusion of macrophages? Langhans Giant Cells
Macrophages with an increased amount of cytoplasm are which type of Cell? Epithelioid cells
Also known as Osteonecrosis or aseptic necrosis? Avascular necrosis
What type of necrosis' histologic sign is absence of osteocytes in bone LACUNAE AVN
T or F, Ischemia can cause an influx of calcium, H2O and Na2+ into the cell TRUE
T or F, ischemia can cause an influx of K+ into the cell False, Efflux
How does ischemia affect the Inner mitochondrial membrane? Loss of aerobic respiration and ATP generation
What are the three critical cell lipid bilayer membranes can result in necrosis Cell (plasma), Inner mitochondrial, Lysosomal
How is the lysosomal membrane affected with necrosis leakage of digestive enzymes into the cytosol
Term for increase swelling by water? Hydropic
Created by: kfrancis