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Unit 1 Vocabulary

Chapter 1, 2, 3

TermDefinition
Sunbelt a group of southern states that stretches from the East Coast all the way to California
Regions areas that are similar in terms of landscape, climate, elevation, and plant and animal life
Coastal Plain is the southernmost region in Georgia; largest geographical region
Fall line land that rises steadily from beaches to marshlands across fertile farmland until it reaches a belt of hills about 20 miles high
Piedmont Georgia's region of rolling hilly plateau that stretches north from the fall line to the base of the Blue Ridge Mountains
Appalachian Mountains a larger mountain range that stretches northward from Central Alabama to Canada
Valley and Ridge west of the Blue Ridge Mountains
Appalachian Plateau Cumberland plateau is in the northwest corner of the states
Archaeologist a scientist who studies the past based on materials such as fossils and artifacts that ancient people left behind
Artifacts an object made, modified, or used by humans in the past that contributes to our understanding of an earlier culture
Pre-Historic relating to the time before written history
Culture the common values and traditions of a society, such as language, government, and family relationships
Paleo Indians the first Americans who crossed from Asia into North America approximately 10,000 years ago
Archaic Period the period of history after the last Ice Age, from around 8000 b.c. to 1000 b.c.
Woodland Period the period of history after the Archaic Period, from approximately 1000 b.c. to 900 a.d.
Agriculture cultivating the soil to produce crops
Renaissance lasted from the 1300s to the 1600s and was a time of increased interest in art and learning
Gulfstream a powerful ocean current that flows from the Gulf of Mexico north along the east coast of North America, then to Europe
Mercantilism an economic theory in which government controls trade and establishes colonies to obtain gold, silver, and natural resources to create wealth and a favorable balance of trade for the parent country
Monopoly complete control over the entire supply of goods or a service in a particular market
Joint-Stock company a business formed by a group of people who jointly make investment and share profits and losses
Charter a written contract issued by a government giving the holder the right to establish a colony, or a document setting the form and structure of a municipal government, its boundaries, and its powers
Anthropologist a person with an extensive knowledge of anthropology who uses this knowledge in their work, typically to solve problems specific to humanity
Antiquities a collectible object such as a piece of furniture or work of art that has a high value because of its considerable age
Hortculture the art or practice of garden cultivation and management.
Clovis Points Clovis points are the characteristically-fluted projectile points associated with the North American Clovis culture, Paleo Indians
Mounds a pile of earth used for protection or concealment
Palisade a fence of wooden stakes or iron railings fixed in the ground, forming an enclosure or defense
Wooly Mammoth a mammoth that was adapted to the cold periods of the Pleistocene, with a long shaggy coat, small ears, and a thick layer of fat. Individuals are sometimes found frozen in the permafrost of Siberia
Barter Economy a cashless economic system in which services and goods are traded at negotiated rates. Barter-based economies are one of the earliest, predating monetary systems and even recorded history
Maize technical or chiefly British term for corn
Bow and Arrow weapon consisting of two parts; the bow is made of a strip of flexible material, such as wood, with a cord linking the two ends of the strip to form a tension from which is propelled the arrow
Projectile Points an object that was hafted to a projectile, such as a spear, dart, or arrow, or perhaps used as a knife
Colonization the act of setting up a colony away from one's place of origin.
Spanish missions of or relating to a style used in the early Spanish missions of the southwestern United States
Barrier Islands long, narrow, offshore deposits of sand or sediment that run parallel to the coastline. They are separated from the main land by a shallow sound, bay, or lagoon and are often found in chains along the East Coast and Gulf of Mexico.
Influence the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself
Smallpox an acute contagious viral disease, with fever and pustules usually leaving permanent scars. It was effectively eradicated through vaccination by 1979
Catholicism the faith, practice, and church order of the Roman Catholic Church
New World the name used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Shale a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable.
Tribe a distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. It is perhaps the term most readily understood and used by the general public
Clan a group of close-knit and interrelated families
Sherds a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels as well. Occasionally, a piece of broken pottery may be referred to as a shard
Nomads a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another
Effigy a sculpture or model of a person
Atlatl a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to store energy during the throw.
Cheifdom a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
Beringia land between Siberia and Alaska that was exposed only during the Ice Age.
Middens an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, vermin, shells, sherds, lithics
Moat a deep, wide ditch surrounding a castle, fort, or town, typically filled with water and intended as a defense against attack
Podium a small platform on which a person may stand to be seen by an audience, as when making a speech
Mastodon a large, extinct, elephant like mammal of the Miocene to Pleistocene epochs, having teeth of a relatively primitive form and number
Pottery pots, dishes, and other articles made of earthenware or baked clay. Pottery can be broadly divided into earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware
Oral Tradition information passed down through the generations by word of mouth that is not written down
Wattle and Daub a material formerly or traditionally used in building walls, consisting of a network of interwoven sticks and twigs covered with mud or clay
Mound Builders were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious and ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes
Expeditions a journey or voyage undertaken by a group of people with a particular purpose, especially that of exploration, scientific research, or war
Guale-Sea Island an historic Native American chiefdom along the coast of present-day Georgia and the Sea Islands
Fur Trade a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur
Conquistador a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense
Monarchy a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in one or several individual(s) reigning until death or abdication
Protestant a member or follower of any of the Western Christian churches that are separate from the Roman Catholic Church and follow the principles of the Reformation, including the Baptist, Presbyterian, and Lutheran churches
Relative Location a point or place in relation to another point or place
Absolute Location designated using a specific pairing of latitude and longitude in a Cartesian coordinate grid
Hemisphere a half of the earth, usually as divided into northern and southern halves by the equator, or into western and eastern halves by an imaginary line passing through the poles
Equator an imaginary line drawn around the earth equally distant from both poles, dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres and constituting the parallel of latitude 0°
Parallels each of the imaginary parallel circles of constant latitude on the earth's surface
Prime Meridian the earth's zero of longitude, which by convention passes through Greenwich, England.
Meridians a circle of constant longitude passing through a given place on the earth's surface and the terrestrial poles
Latitude the angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator, or of a celestial object north or south of the celestial equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes
Longitude the angular distance of a place east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England, or west of the standard meridian of a celestial object, usually expressed in degrees and minutes
Compass Rose a circle showing the principal directions printed on a map or chart
Scale refers to the relationship (or ratio) between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground
Goods merchandise or possessions
Service a system supplying a public need such as transport, communications, or utilities such as electricity and water
Imports bring (goods or services) into a country from abroad for sale
Exports send (goods or services) to another country for sale
Climate the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period
Weather the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc
Created by: 15caswit
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