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US-Enligtenment Note

Review for Quiz over the Enlightenment Notes

QuestionAnswer
Which ancient civilization studied math, history, political science, and developed the idea of democracy? Greeks Greece
Which ancient civilization was a Republic where the citizens elected their leaders and they also developed the idea of the "rule of law"? Romans
Which ancient civilization was the first to believe in one God and this God gave them the Ten Commandments, which became the basis for many laws? Jews Judaism
Who was the Jewish man whose followers began a religion that became the main religion of Europe? Jesus
Which group of people saved much of the learning of the Greeks and Romans while Europe was in the Dark Ages? Muslim Islamic
After the Crusades, what began to develop in Europe in the 12th Century? Universities
Who believed in natural law, that people got their rights because they were human beings, not because any government gave them these rights? Thomas Aquinas
What is the french word that means "rebirth" for the rebirth of learning based on the works of the Greeks and Romans during this time of intellectual and artistic creativity? Renaissance
Who posted a letter with 95 criticisms of the Catholic Church on the doors of a church in Germany? Martin Luther
Who taught that Protestants should work hard, behave, and obey the law to prove their faith. This became known as the Protestant Work Ethic. John Calvin
Who replaced the Pope with himself as the head of the Church of England when he wanted to divorce his wife? King Henry VIII
Which group of people believed the Church of England was still "too Catholic" and wanted to clean it of these practices? They were persecuted for their beliefs and eventually moved to America. Puritans
Who believed that people were naturally selfish and violent, so they needed a strong government to keep order? Thomas Hobbes
Who believed that government had to answer to its citizens? John Locke
John Locke believed all people had natural rights like... life, liberty, property
John Locke believed it was whose job to protect the natural rights of the people? Government
John Locke believed that government was a __?__ between the people and the rulers. Contract
Who wrote that the government should not support any one religion and people ought to be free to choose their own religious beliefs? Voltaire
Who believed that the powers of government should be separated so that it doesn't get too powerful and threaten people's rights? Montesquieu
Who wrote that government should be a contract where everyone agrees to be governed by the general will? Rousseau
What are the two English political documents that impacted the founding of our country? Magna Carta English Bill of Rights
Which English document limited royal powers and protected the rights of the nobles? Magna Carta
Which English document said the monarch couldn't tax people without Parliament's consent? English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights said people had the right to what kind of trial with a jury of their peers? fair and speedy
The English Bill of Rights said people had the right to do what without fear of punishment? petition the king
Which words in the Declaration of Independence show Thomas Aquinas' belief that people get their rights because they are humans and are not given their rights by a government? "endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights"
What idea by Thomas Hobbes shows up in the Declaration of Independence's list of grievances by the King? People are naturally selfish and violent.
What phrase from John Locke does the Declaration of Independence almost plagiarize (copy) almost completely? "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness" in the Declaration comes from Locke's "Life, Liberty, and Property"
How does Locke's idea that the purpose of governments is to "protect" our rights show up in the Declaration of Independence? "That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men"
Both Locke and Rousseau believed that government should be a contract between the people and their rulers. What words in the Declaration show this contract? Governments must "secure these rights" and then they get "the consent of the governed" from the people.
How does the ideas of Voltaire that government should not support one religion and people should be free to choose their religious beliefs show up? In the First Amendments of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution where it says, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof"
Where does the Colonial motto of "No Taxation Without Representation" come from? The English Bill of Rights which said the Monarch couldn't tax the people without Parliament's consent.
Where does the English Bill of Rights' statement that people have a right to a fair and speedy trial by a jury of their peers show up in our founding documents? In the Sixth Amendments of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution
Where does the English Bill of Rights statement that people have the right to "petition" (ask) the King without fear of punishment show up in our founding documents? In the First Amendments of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution where it says, "Congress shall make no law ... abridging... the right of the people ... to petition the Government for a redress of grievances"
Created by: ColbyHistory