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8th Grade History

Chapter 1 - A Beka Book

TermDefinition
October 12, 1492 When Columbus found America
Christopher Columbus First (European) to find America
San Salvador "Holy Savior" this is what Columbus named the first island he found
Leif Ericson A.D 1000; he found America
A.D. 500-1500 The Middle Ages
Crusades Used to drive the Muslims form the land they had conquered in the Middle East
A.D. 1,000 - 1,300 When the crusades took place
Christendom The nations that professed to be Christian
What revived European interest in trade with the East? The crusades
Middle class Merchants and traders
Marco Polo Son of an Italian merchant; accompanied his uncle and father to China; 1200's
Kublai Khan The ruler of China when Marco Polo was there
Polo's writings spurred in many Europeans a new interest in ___. Asia
1300's When the Renaissance took place
Renaissance "rebirth" this time period emphasized the abilities of mankind and largely ignored God
How did the Renaissance help to set the stage for the discovery of the New World? 1. Navigation at sea improved 2. Improved rudders 3. The invention of the Astrolabe and compass
Astrolabe Used to determine latitude
Compass Used to determine direction
Movable-type printing press Introduced by Gutenberg in 1440
Gutenberg first printed the ___. Bible
Movable-type printing press did more than any other invention to what? Bring Europe out of the Dark Ages
European merchants wanted a new all-water route to the Orient why? So they could bypass the Italians, who controlled trade between the East and West
Prince Henry the Navigator (of Portugal) Founded a navigation school and sent out several ships to explore the western coast of Africa
Bartholomew Dias He reached the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa
Vasco da Gama First to sail all the way around Africa to India, thus openting an all-water route to the east
1517 When the Protestant Reformation began
Martin Luther Protested false doctrines of the church by ailing his Ninety-five Theses to the church door in Wittenberg, Germany
Ninety-five Theses Statements attacking the sale of indlulgences
The Protestant Reformation brought what? A revival of biblical Christianity
The people from England who colonized North America would be heavily influenced by the ___. Bible
Religious matters in Europe continued to be settled by what? nations and governments
The ancestors of the native Americans left the tower of Babel to begin what? A great migration
Western Hemisphere The New World
To get to America, the ancestors of the native Americans probably crossed a(n) what? Land birdge; they probably followed the animals they hunted
Meat Early Americans main food
Animal skins Used for shelter and clothing
What where the two incorrect assumptions Columbus made. 1. He underestimated the distance westward form Europe to Asia 2. He did not know that the continents of North and South America lay between Europe and Asia
After several years, Columbus finally persuaded the Spanish king and queen, ___ and ___, to sponsor his expedition. Ferdinand, Isabella
Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria Columbus's fleet of ships
Columbus believed he had landed on what islands? The Indies
The 2,000 mile chain of islands between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic ocean is called what? The West Indies
Caribbs A tribe of cannibals who inhabited Columbus's region
Next, Columbus discovered _____ and ____, modern Haiti and the Dominican Republic Cuba, Hispaniola
Amerigo Vespucci (by whom America is named after) First to realize that what Columbus had discovered was a new continent
Conquistadors Conquerors
Ponce de Leon Conqueror and governor of Puerto Rico
Who made the first Spanish landing on the mainland of North America? Ponce de Leon
Florida Ponce de Leon found it: named after Pascua florida
Vasco de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean
Fedinand Began the first voyage around the world; this officially proved the earth was round
Hernando Cortes Conquered the Aztec Indians of Mexico
Montezuma A powerful chieftain that had developed an advanced civilization that included a calendar, pictographic writing, and architecture
Francisco Pizarro Conquered the Inca Indians of Peru
Cabeza de Vaca Explored Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona; his stories inspired stories about the "Seven Cities of Cibola"
Francisco Coronado Discovered the grand Canyon
Pueblo Spanish word for town
Hernando de Soto Discovered the Mississippi River
St. Augustine The first European settlement in the present day U.S.
Encomiendas Large estates granted to Spanish colonists by the King of Spain
Sante Fe Served as the capital of the Spanish colonies in the American Southwest
El Camino Real The oldest road in the U.S.
Spain, at that time, was what? The most powerful nation in the world
Spain's chief rival England
Sir Francis Drake Robbed Spanish ships
Counter-Reformation was meant to bring souls back to the Catholic fold
"Invicible Armada" A fleet of ship Philip sent to attack and destroy Engalnd
1588 Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Protestant England and Scotland would be free to lay the groundwork for what? Religious and political freedoms
Northwest Passage a supposed water route through North America and the Pacific
Jacques Cartier Discovered the St. Lawrence River
Hugenots French Protestants
Charlesfort, Fort Caroline established by the Hugenots
1608 When the first permanent French settlement in the New World was established
Quebec, Canada "Father of New France" ; the first permanent French settlement in the New World
Jacques Marquette A Jesuit missionary
Louis Joliet A fur trader
Louis Joliet, Jacques Marquette Explored the central Mississippi River
Rovert Cavalier de la Salle Claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for France
Canada, the Great Lakes region, and the Mississippi Valley "New France"
Iroquois indians the only Indians that were against the French
New France never became heavily populated why? 1. Most of the French didn't permanently settle anywhere 2. They lacked self-governments 3. They lacked religious freedoms
New Orleans (1718) Best known city of French heritage in America
Created by: nelsonclan