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History notecards 40

His. Note cards 1-40

What is a monopoly? A single company that controls an entire industry.
Why do countries practice imperialism? Power and respect Natural resources Increased trade and economic power To spread culture, religion and form of government Strategic or military advantage
Who are indigenous people? People who are native to a country(often refers to those in a colony who have been taken over by another country).
What is a colony? A nation or territory that has been taken over by another.
Industrial Revolution Machines and factories replaced Hand-made Products and human labor First happened in England in late 1700s.
Effects of Industrialization Growth of critics Rise in crime Pollution and disease Overcrowding and poor housing Rise in low-skilled labor; anyone can get a job but workers are easily replaced Low pay, long hours, bad working conditions
The Enlightenment People have natural born rights Government has limited power Citizens have freedom of speech and religion Focus on scientific and intellectual study
Labor Union A group of workers who join together to fight for better working conditions and higher wages
What is a dictatorship? Rule by one person Power gained and kept by force and fear No freedoms and individual rights Secret police to stop dissent Dictatorships: Germany in WWII (Hitler) Totalitarian
What is a democracy(democratic government)? Government ruled by the people Citizens have freedom, rights, liberties Right to vote Democratic Countries: US, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, Mexico
Judicial Review Supreme court's power to declare laws constitutional/unconstitutional
3 branches of US government Legislative branch- Makes laws Congress(House + Senate) Executive branch- Enforces laws (President) Judicial branch- Interprets laws (Supreme Court)
Market Economy(Capitalism) Economic decisions(what to make, buy, price) Supply and demand Free enterprise(anyone can start a business) Private ownership and property
Traditional Economy Based on custom & tradition (generations do the same thing) Farming, often with primitive tools Usually among the poorest countries in the world
What is a theocracy? Rule by religious leaders No freedom of religion Iran
Command Economy(Communism) Economic decisions made by government Government owns everything No profit or free enterprise Government totally controls society in order to make everyone equal
Laissez faire economic policy Government is "hands off" Few regulations No overtime pay, safety regulations, minimum wage, etc.
What is monarchy? Ruled by king/queen/czar Power through family line Two types- Absolute: total power Constitutional: Figurehead ruled by or government
Urban, Rural, Suburban Urban: City Rural: "Country", farm areas Suburban: Town (area outside a large city)
Gross National Product(GNP)/ Gross Domestic Policy(GDP) Total value of all goods and services produced in a country in a year Production: How much "stuff" a country makes
What makes a source "credible"? An argument is based on facts, not opinions The writer is free of bias
Interest Rate Additional money that must be paid on top of a loan Additional money gained on a savings account
19th, 26th Amendements 19th Amendment- women's right to vote 26th Amendment- 18 years old right to vote
13th, 14th, 15th Amendments 13th-banned slavery 14th-equal citizenship for all/equal protection under the law 15th-voting rights regardless of race
Franchise, suffrage Franchise-the right to vote Disenfranchise- to deny the right to vote
Civil Disobedience Intentionally breaking a law to change it sit-ins, marches, Rosa Parks, etc.
What is a tariff? A tax on an import (foreign good) Purpose: to make foreign goods more expensive, encouraging the purchase of American goods
Import/Export Import: A good made in another country and sold in the U.S. Export: A good made in the U.S. and sold to other countries
1st Amendment Rights Freedom of: Religion Speech Assembly Press Petition
Two types of segregation Segregation- to separate De jure segregation-segregation by law (on purpose) bathrooms, cemeteries and schools De facto segregation-segregation by circumstance (unintentional)
Segregation continued De facto- certain cities and schools where all black kids or mostly black kids live and vice versa for whites. People live with their own kind unintentionally
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme court case in 1896 that established "separate but equal." Said segregation was ok.
Federal Reserve National bank of U.S.; controls interest rates, loans money to banks and controls flow of money. -If economy is bad: Fed. will lower interest rates to make it easier to borrow money
Federal Reserve (cont.) -If economy is good: Fed. will raise interest rates to prevent inflation.
Initiative Citizens can propose a law that does not yet exist. -petition, get enough signatures, submit it, statewide vote
Referendum Citizens can remove a state law that already exists -petition, get enough signatures, submit it, statewide vote
Types of "citizen action' (how to get things done) Start a petition Contact your representative (congress person or senator) Attend/speak at a city council meeting Run for office
Inflation When the value of a dollar goes down -you can't buy as much as you used to with the same amount of money
Brown v. Board of Education Supreme court case in 1954 that outlawed segregation in schools reversed plessy vs. ferguson ruling
Roe vs Wade Supreme court ruling in 1973 legalizing abortion
Schenck vs U.S. During WWI, Supreme Court ruled that government can restrict free speech if your speech causes "clear and present danger." easier for government to restrict rights during war
Created by: joshhutchrocks
Popular U.S. History sets




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