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Constitutional Era


What was the first attempt at workable government in the United States? The Articles of Confederation
What was the basic problem with the government under the Articles of Confederation? Too Weak
How did the Articles of Confederation limit Congress' lawmaking power? 1) No power to tax 2) No power to regulate interstate commerce
What is interstate commerce? Trade between states
Where did the Constitutional Convention meet? Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
What 2 Virginians played important roles at the Constitutional Convention? 1) George Washington 2) James Madison
What position did George Washington hold at the Constitutional Convention? President (chairman) of the Constitutional Convention
Who wrote the "Virginia Plan"? James Madison
Who led the debate and kept a written record of the Constitutional Convention? James Madison
Who is considered the "Father of the Constitution"? James Madison
What is federalism? The division of power between the federal or national government and the state governments
What is another name for federalism? The federal system
What is another name for national law? Federal law
What does it mean to say that federal law is the supreme law of the land? When state law conflicts with federal (national) law, the federal law overrides the state law.
What clause of the Constitution says that federal law is the supreme law of the land? The Supremacy Clause
What type of national legislature did Madison's "Virginia Plan" propose? 1) A two-house legislature 2) Population would determine a state's representation in both houses of Congress
What did the "New Jersey Plan' say about representation in the national legislature? Each state would have equal representation, regardless of population.
What solved the large state/small state disagreement about representation in the national legislature? The Great Compromise
How did the Great Compromise solve the big state-small state disagreement about representation in the national legislature? 1) Congress would be a two-house legislature; the Senate and the House of Representatives. 2) Each state would have 2 U.S. senators (small states) 3) Population would decide a state's membership in the House of Representatives (big states)
What balanced power in Congress between the large and small states? The Great Compromise
What was the Three-Fifths Compromise? 1) A compromise between the "free" North and the "slave" South 2) Slaves would count as three-fifths of a person in figuring a state's representation in the House of Representatives.
Define the term separation of powers. The division of power among different branches of government
What 3 branches of government did the Constitution create? 1) Legislative (makes laws) 2) Executive (enforces laws) 3) Judicial (interprets or explains the meaning of the laws)
What is the name of the legislative branch of the federal government? Congress
What official leads the executive branch? President
What court leads the judicial branch? Supreme Court
Define checks and balances system. A government in which each branch can stop or check the actions of the other branches
How many states had to ratify (approve) the Constitution before it could take effect? 9
Who were the Federalists? Supporters of the Constitution
Who were the Anti-Federalists? Opponents of the Constitution
Who were the two leading Federalists in Virginia? 1) George Washington 2) James Madison
Why did the Anti-Federalists fear a powerful national government? Believed it would destroy the rights of individuals and the power of the states
Who were the 2 leading Anti-Federalists in Virginia? 1) Patrick Henry 2) George Mason
What group wanted a Bill of Rights included in the Constitution? Anti-Federalists
Who took responsibility for drafting a Bill of Rights? James Madison
What 2 documents did Madison use to write the Bill of Rights? 1) Virginia Declaration of Rights 2) Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
What is a statute? A Law
Who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights? George Mason
Who wrote the Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom? Thomas Jefferson
What is the Bill of Rights? First 10 amendments to the Constitution
What is a constitutional amendment? An addition to the Constitution
What rights are guaranteed by the First Amendment? 1) Freedom of speech 2) Freedom of the press 3) Freedom of religion 4) Freedom of assembly 5) The right of petition
What does freedom of assembly mean? The right to gather at public meetings
What does the right of petition mean? The right to make written requests to make changes in the government
Define free markets. Business and trade without government regulation or rules
Created by: wzuger
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