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Thoughts & Emotion

Psychology and Sociology MCAT

TermDefinition
cognition a wide range of higher level mental activity such as: analyzing info, generating ideas, and problem solving
perception organizing and identifying sensory input only
information processing model a computer model of cognitive functioning, with both serial (one input at a time) and parallel processing (multiple inputs at a time)
cerebral cortex the outer portion of our brain, which is newest and capable of high level processing
lobes of the cerebral cortex + function of each parietal (somatosensory info), frontal (decision making, long term memory, motor control), occipital (vision), temporal (olfactory, auditory, emotion, language)
developmental psychology the dichotomy between nature vs. nurture and their affects on human behavior change across the lifetime
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development integrated the ideas of nature vs. nurture, involved assimilation (fitting the results of interacting with environment into preexisting schemas) and accommodation (adjusting one's view of the world in response to new information)
stages of cognitive development 1) sensorimotor: object permanence, separation of self 2) pre-operational: language, egocentric 3) concrete operational: logical, inductive reasoning, conservation 4) formal operational: deductive, moral reasoning
learning theory of language emphasizes nurture, language is a form of behavior and therefore learned via operant conditioning
nativist theory of language emphasizes nature, humans have innate biological ability to learn grammar and syntax
interactionist theory of language argues interplay between environment and biology, that human brain is developed to be receptive to language, and is motivated to acquire language via social factors
Broca's area responsible for production of words, damage can result in broca's aphasia (unable to speak fluently, sounds broken)
Wernicke's area responsible for comprehension of language, damage can result in wernicke's aphasia (cannot understand what is said or heard)
arcuate fasiculus connects broca's area to wernicke's area, damage can cause conduction aphasia (unable to repeat sentences back, read out loud)
intelligence ability to understand/reason complex ideas, learn
IQ intelligence quotient, intended to predict ones learning performances later in life (not predictive of art/music, but works well for math/verbal)
learning disability having an IQ score less than average
general intelligence (g) the notion that intelligence can be categorize into only 2 subjects: 1) fluid intelligence: ability to think w/out background knowledge, 2) crystallized intelligence: thinking based on previous knowledge
theory of multiple intelligence opposes general intelligence, believes in several categories such as: spatial, musical, linguistic, etc
Sternberg's triarchic theory intelligence arises from adapting of 3 influences: 1) analytical 2) creative 3) pratical
emotional intelligence includes 1) perceiving emotion, 2) using/reasoning emotion, 3) understanding emotion/what caused it, 4) managing emotion
role of heredity/environment in intelligence genes play larger role than external factors, but both still do play a role
algorithm consecutive steps that lead to a definite solution, but may be time consuming
analogy reduces current problem to previously known problem, to solve via familiarity
trial + error unsystematic technique, very inefficient
heuristics using "rules of thumb" helpful/timesaving but not always correct
Created by: 905434266166033