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Stack #195094

WGU IOC4 Assessment

Steam Engine Oliver Evans in 1802, First American Steam Engine; led to manufacture of high-pressure engines used throughout Eastern United States
Spanish American War (April-July 1989) brief, intense conflict that effectively ended Spain's worldwide empire and gained the U.S. several new possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific
Sons Of Liberty a secret organization of American patriots which originated in the 13 colonies during the American Revolution
Sir Francis Drake English Explorer
Sieur de La Salle French Explorer
"The Shot Heard Round The World" was fired at Lexington on April 19, 1775, became the first skirmish of the American Revolution
Samuel Adams (1722-1803) never let the colonists forget what the crown has done to them, genuine revultionary, formed committee of correspondence, developed political structure without royal government
Samuel de Champlain French Explorer
Samuel Gompers United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the Amercan Federation of labor from 1886 to 1924
Second Continental Congress met in May 1775, and "for the defense of American liberty"
Second World War Began in 1939 when Germany invaded Poland and ended in 1945 with the surrender of Germany and Japan
Seven-Years War (1756-1763) war between several European countries and result of two primary conflicts1. England Vs. France over control of North America2. Austria Vs. Prussia over control of Germany
Revolutionary War (1775-1783) American war of independence British soldiers and Americans fought at Lexington and Concord. Treaty of Paris ended the war.
Renaissance A cultural awakening that began in Italy and spread throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries
Reform Movement movement intended to bring about social and humanitarian reforms
The Reaper (Cyrus Hall McCormick)a horse drawn mechanical machine used for harvesting grain or other small crops, designed to cut down wheat much more quickly and more efficiently
Quebec Act Extended the Southern boundary of the province to the Ohio River and granted full religious freedom to Catholics
Quakers radical religious group, formally know as Society of Friends, that rejected formal theology and stressed each person's "Inner Light", a spiritual guide to righteousness
Puritans member of a reformed protestant sect in Europe and American that insisted on removing all vestiges of Catholicism from popular religious practice
Proclamation of 1763 attempted unsuccessfully to restrain Americans from moving into Indian lands west of the Appalachian Mountains
Pocahontas saved John Smith & married John Rolfe, was an Indian princess
Protestant Reformation 16th century, religious movement to reform and challenge the spiritual authority of the Roman Catholic Church, associated with Martin Luther and John Calvin
Pawnee Nebraska and North Kansas responsible in Agriculture
Paul Revere messenger, patriot, silversmith, played important role in the American Revolutionary War
New Deal aimed to improve the public good and aid the recovery of the economy in the 1930's
Muckraker one who spends real or alleged scandal about another (usually for political advantage)
Monroe Doctrine December 2, 1823, stated that European powers were no longer allowed to colonize in the Americas, or interfere with existing colonies or their dependencies in the Western hemisphere
Mayflower Compact (1620) document written by the pilgrims establishing the basic principles of the Plymouth Colony government
Maya covered much of present day Guatemala, Belize, and South Mexico; large stone temples, palaces; they raised corn, cotton, squash, beans, and cocoa. They also made calenders and had their own handwriting.
Lend-Lease Program supplies were offered to Great Britian and the soviets to help them fight the Nazis
League of Nations on essential element of Wilson's fourteen points, meant to provide a forum for countries to resolve international conflict diplomatically
Land Grants given for the purpose of establishing settlements, missions and farms in the 16th century
Knights of Labor AKA Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor; one of the most important labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded to end child labor, convict labor, equal pay for women, and progressive income tax
J.P. Morgan American financier, banker and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time
Joint-Stock Company Business enterprise that enabled investors to pool money for commercial trading activity and funding for sustaining colonies
John Smith English Explorer, in 1608 took control of Jamestown, captured by Native Americans and Pocahontas saved his life
John D. Rockefeller United States industrialist who made a fortune in the oil business and half of it away
John Rolfe Took over Jamestown after John Smith, was a tobacco farmer, married Pocahontas and died in 1622
John Locke English philosopher, one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers
John Cabot Enlish Explorer
Jamestown 1st English settlement, John Smith took it over after the first winter and put all of the men to work. After John Smith was injured; John Rolfe took it over and the colony was saved and prospered
James Monroe 5th president, Missouri Compromise, made Florida a state, Monroe Doctrine was in the continental congress
James Madison 4th president, principal author of Constitution, organized Republican party, led in the War of 1812, author of the Bill of Rights
Jacques Cartier French Explorers
Intolerable Acts AKA Corersive Acts; required the colonists to quarter soldiers in their homes
Indian Wars used to describe a series of conflicts between the federal/colonial government and Native Americans; the most famous and brutal battle were Battle of Little Big Horn, Wounded Knee Massacre, and Sand Creek Massacre
Indian Removal Act (1830) law permitted the president to give public lands in the west to Indians residing in eastern states, in exchange for their removal west of the Mississippi River, led to the Trail of Tears
Iroquois most powerful military alliance, most successful, has 5 nations1. Mohawk2. Oneida3. Onondaga4. Cayuga5. Senec
Industrialization the development of industry on an extensive scale
Indentured Servant standard term for poor people who made up much of the labor force in the southern colonies
Inca Western Andes and Amazon River populated, now known as Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and Ecuador; stone houses and religious buildings and roads; had over 12 million people
House of Burgesses an elected representative assembly in colonial Virginia, 1st example of representative government in the English colonies
Homestead Act (1862) legislation granting 160 acres of land to anyone who paid a $10 fee and pledged to live on and cultivate the land for 5 years, this encouraged a large migration to the west
Henry Hudson English Explorer
Hernando do Soto Spanish Explorer
Hernan Cortes sailed from Cuba in February 1519, he was a conquistador, landed Yucaton coast. Between 1522-1527 he conquered much of present day Mexico. Founded Mexico in the 1520's. Spanish explorer
Harriet Tubman U.S. abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the north
Glorious Revolution replacement of James II by William and Mary as English monarchs in 1688, marking the beginning of constitutional monarchy in Britian
Giovanni Da Verazanno Italian explorer who sailed for France
George Calvert known as Lord Baltimore went to Catholicism after Anglican Church, waned to found a conoly where English Catholics could practive their religion. Founded Maryland in 1632 for religious freedom and commercial interest
General Oglethorpe Founded Georgia in 1732
General LaFayette army general (joined forces with George Washington, helped win the Civil War in Yorktown
Gadsden Purchase named for James Gadsden; Arizona and New Mexico were purchased in a treaty signed by Franklin Peirce
Fredrick Douglas American abolitionist, women's suffrage, editor, author, statemen, and reformer; 1st African American nominated as vice-president
Francisco Vasguez de Coronado Spanish Explorer
First Continental Congress met in late 1774 in Philadelphia, demanded to repel the Intolerable Acts and all trade with the British
Federalists supporters of the constitution who advocated its ratification
Enlightenment philosophical and intellectual movement that began in Europe during the 1700's, it stressed the application of reason to solve social and scientific problems
Elizabeth Cady Stanton United States suffragist and feminist; called for reform of the practices that perpetuated sexual inequality
Election of 1828 Presidential rematch between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson won by a landslide
Early Spanish Colonies New Spain
Early French Colonies QuebecMississippi Valley
Early English Colonies JamestownRoanokeMassachusetts Bay ColonyPlymouthMarylandCarolinaPennsylvaniaNew Jersey
Declaratory Acts reasserted the power of Parliament to govern the colonies as they saw fit (March 1766)
Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson drafted it, a list of specific greivances against George III and his government, "all men are created equal", "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness", government is there to protect these rights
Cotton Gin Eli Whitnet's machine that quickly and efficiently removed seeds from cotton fibers
Christopher Columbus Born in Genoa, Italy in 1451, set sail for Cathay in 1492, with three ships (Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria), sailed for Spanish. Died in 1506
Celcius Calvert George Calvert's son, June 30, 1632 was granted a charter for a colony on the Chesapeake Bay, now named Maryland
Catherine Beecher renowned for her forthright opinoins on women's education as well as support of many benefits of the incorporation of kindergarten into children's education
Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770) British soldiers were trying to keep the peace where a wob was gathered in Boston, a soldier was knocked down and his gun went off, the rest of the soldiers fired into the crowd killing 5 colonists
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Experimenter, grew up in Boston, and then moved to Philadelphia; lightning rod and stove; spread enlightenment ideas, helped broaden manies intellectual ideas/horizons
Aztec dominated Central Mexico; contained 5 million people, religion was very important (daily human sacrifice), war was an extremely important part of the Aztec society, Tenochtitlan was the capital city
Anti-Federalists critics of the Constitution who expressed concern that it seemed to possess no specific provision for the protection of natural and civil rights
Andrew Jackson 7th president, forced the relocation of Native Americans from Oklahoma, many Native Americans died as a results (Trail of Tears)
Amerigo Vespucci Italian Explorer who sailed for Portugal
Agricultural Revolution the gradual shift from hunting and gathering to cultuvating basic food crops that accured worldwide from 7000 to 9000 years ago
Aaron Burr shot Alexander Hamilton, was vice president to Thomas Jefferson, very clever
Vicksburg turning point battle in the Civil War after being besieged for nearly seven weeks the confederates surrendered
Ulysses S. Grants most famous of the Union military leaders during the Civil War, commanded Army that took Vicksburg, in 1864 named general in chief of all union armies
Ten Percent Plan decreed that a state could be reintergrated into the union when 10% of the votes had taken an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation
Stephen A. Douglas Senator associated with the doctrine of popular sovereignty (settlers decided whether to allow slavery)
Scalawags white Southerner who supported Reconstruction policies after the American Civil War
Robert E. Lee most famous of the Southern military leaders in the Civil War
Republican Party formed in 1854, opposed to the expansion of slavery; spurred on passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Radical Republican republican members of the U.S. congress after the Civil War who favored policies to force changes in Southern life and policies
Ku Klux Klan an organization of whites that terrorized blacks in the South after the Civil War, wanted to stop blacks from voting
Jefferson Davis president of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War
Harriet Beech Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852
Gettysburg famous Civil War battle that resulted when the South attempted to strike into the North in 1863, turning point of the Civil War
Fort Sumter an island fort in the harbor of Charleston, SC; where the first shots of the Civil War were fired in April 1861
Emancipation Proclamation order issued by President Lincoln in 1862 that declared slaves free in the areas still held by the Confederates
Compromise of 1850 series of bills aimed at resolving the territorial and slavery controversies arising from the Mexican-American War
Carpet Baggers derogatory term for Northerns who came to the South after the Civil War, some came to do good, other came to take advantage of the situation
Antietam first battle of the Civil War fought on Northern soil, bloodiest single-day battle on American history
Andrew Johnson 17th president, was elected vice president and succeeded Lincoln when Lincoln was assassinated; was impeached but acquitted by one vote
14th Amendment ratified in 1868, this amendment provided citizenship to the ex-slaves after the Civil War and constitutionally protected equal rights under the law for all citizens
15th Amendment 1870,prohibited the denial or abridgment of the right to vote by the federal government or state government on the basis of race, color, or prior condition as a slave
13th Amendment ratified in 1865, this amendment the the U.S. Constitution prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude
Nez Perce Pacific Northwest (Washington, Oregon, and Idaho)
Articles of Confederation raitified in 1781, this was used as the U.S.'s first constitution, providing framework for national government, limited central authority be denying government any taxation or coercive powers
Lyndon B. Johnson 36th president, escalated the involvement of the U.S. in the Vietnam War from 16,000 troops to 550,000 troops, designed the Great Society (civil right laws, medicare, medicaid, aid to education, and "War On Poverty")
Woodrow Wilson 28th president, was in office during WWI, in 1918 he delivered a speech on his fourteen points to acheive world peace and prevent future warfare, he also formed the league of nations
Theodore Roosevelt 26th president, organized and helped command troops in Spanish-American War (fought in Cuba), he initiated the construction of Panama Canal in 1903; his foreign policy AKA "Big Stick", was used to respect his ideas
Thomas Jefferson 3rd president, headed the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence; in 1803he bought the Louisiana territory (Louisiana Purchase) which doubled the size of the United States
Ronald Reagan 40th president, congress passed his economic policies called the Reaganomics (supply-side economics, reduction of taxes, federal involvement in business regulation)
Richard Nixon 37th president, visited China in 1972 and received two pandas as gifts was first and only president to resign; involved in the Watergate Scandal which harassed and wire-tapped people
Navigation Acts a series of commercial restrictions passed by Parliament intended to regulate colonial commerce in such ways as to favor England's accumulation of wealth
Louisiana Purchase In 1803 Thomas Jefferson sent negotiators to France to speak to Napolean about purchasing New Orleans, but were offered the entire Louisiana territory for $15 million and we bought it
John F. Kennedy 35th president, in office during the Cuban Missile Crisis, when we went to the moon, and the Vietnam Wat; in September 1962 he allowed a black student to go to an all-white University with the help of the National Guard; sparked civil rights movement
John Adams 2nd president, 1st vice president, founding father, played huge role in the Declaration of Independence, peaceful resolution of Quadi-War with France in 1798; was in the continental congress
Harry S. Truman 33rd president, used atomic bomb to end WWII (Japan); used the Fair Deal to desegregate the U.S. military
George Washington 1st president, in September 1796 he decided to resign after his second term, establishing a 2-term ppresidency, established a cabinets, a board of advisors, and secretary of state and treasury
Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd president, founded New Deal, was president during outbreak of WWII; longest serving president for 12 years
Dwight D. Eisenhower 34th president, tried to retaliate during Cold War built up nuclear weapons, coined the phrase military-industrial complex to describe the relationship between armed forces, weapons supplier, and government, made Alaska and Hawaii states
Abraham Lincoln 16th president, did not approve of slavery and was in office during Civil War; formed union army to help preserve the nation, wrote Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, freeing all slaves in confederate states; assassinated in 1865.
Mexican-American War an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. Annexation of Texas
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854, created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settles to determine if they would allow slavery
Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court ruling that prohbited Congress from regulating slavery in the territories
Plessy VS. Ferguson Segregation could be legally enforced so long as the facilities for blacks were equal to those for whites
New Fugitive Slave Act any slave that escaped to another state or into federal territory would be seized and returned to their owners; added another part in 1850 to penalize anyone who helped a slave to escape
Trail of Tears In the winter of 1838-1839, the Cherokee were forced to evacuate their lands in Georgia and travel under military guard to present day Oklahoma roughly 1/4 or 16,000 died en route
Stamp Act (1765) required a stamp, or watermark, on virtually all paper and paper products sold in the colonies
Tea Act (1773) a monopoly on tea sales to the colonies and greatly reduced high-quality tea tax
Sugar Act imposed a tax on foreigh sugar and molasses brought into the colonies
Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty negotiated by the Pope in 1494 to resolve competing land claims of Spain and Portugal in the New World; it divided the world along a North-South line in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
Manifest Destiny coined in 1845, this term referred to a doctrine in support of territorial expansion based on beliefs that population growth demanded territorial expansion, that God supported American expansion, and national government equaled the expansion of freedom
Headright System put in place to ease labor shortage in Jamestown which gave colonists 50 acres of land
Encomienda an exploitative labor system designed by Spanish rulers to reward conquistadores in the New World by granting them local villages and control over Native Labor
Great Migration millions of blacks migrating from South to Northern cities in pusuit of better economic opportunities
Conquistadores 16th century Spanish adventurers, often of noble birth, who subdued the Native Americans and created the Spanish empire in the New World
Virginia Company English jointed stock companies chartered by James II in 1606 with the purpose of establishing settlements
Valley Forge counter-attach by American, success was in their hands when they broke it off, disease took 2500 American lives
Upton Sinclair American author who wrote over 90 books including The Jungle, investigated socialist views
Unionization act of forming unions, "the issue underlying the strike was unionization"
Zachary Taylor 12th president, American military leader; lead troops to victory in Spanish-American War; 40 year military career
Treaty of Paris a treaty signed on September 3, 1783 to end the Revolutionary War
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo agreement that ended the Mexican-American War, provided for loss of Texas and California to the United States; America now distrusted Latin America
Transcontinental Railroad crosses the continent from "coast-to-coast"; terminals are at or connected to different oceans
Townsend Duties imposed duties on tea, lead, glass, and dyes for paint
Thomas Paine wrote a book called "Common Sense", in order to end the British rule over the colonies
Thomas Gage was sent to Boston in 1768 to silence the protests of the colonists towards all of the taxes
Texas Revolution AKA Texas War of Independece, fought on October 2, 1835-April 21, 1836, between Texas and Mexico, began with Battle of Gonzales and ended with Battle of San Jacinto, resulted in the Republic of Texas
Telegraph 1844, invented by Samuel F.B. Moore, make long-distance communication almost instantaneous
1st Amendment Freeom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of press, right to peacefully assemble, and right to petition the government
2nd Amendment right to bear arms
3rd Amendment no soldiers shall be quartered without the owner's consent
4th Amendment no unreasonable search or seizures
5th Amendment no double jeopardy, due process of law, no private property will be taken without just compensation
6th Amendment right to a speedy and public trial
7th Amendment right to trial by jury
8th Amendment no excessive fines, no cruel or unusual punishment
9th Amendment federal government cannot takes away rights
10th Amendment If the federal government does not have the power given to it, then it will be decided by the states
17th Amendment two senators for each state, in for 6 years, each senator gets one vote
19th Amendment guarentee woman the right to vote
American Federal System 3 branches (legislative, executive, and judicial), consisting of the President, Congress, and the Supremem Court
Arctic Tundra low temperatures, short growing season, usually in Antarctica
Bill Of Rights First ten amendments to the United States Constitution
Civic Responsibilities the responsibilities of being a citizen
Climate Map shows temperature, snowfall, rainfall, and humidity
Continental Subarctic long cold season (Canada, Alaska, and Russia)
Deforestation loss of forest due to overcutting trees, one consequence is soil erosion
Executive Branch enforce the laws
Judicial Branch interpret the laws
Legislative Branch make the laws
Great Society domestic programs proposed by Lyndon B. Johnson; such as education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation
Herbert Hoover 31st president, in 1929 the stock market crashed and the economy collapsed, and Hoover was defeated for reelection by Franklin D. Roosevelt
Humid Continental found over large land masses, between polar and tropical air masses, large seasonal temperature difference
Industrial Revolution the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Lusitania British ocean liner sunk by German submarine, nearly 1200 people died
Magna Carta royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
Malcolm X American black Muslim minister, militant civil rights leader
Marine West Coast slight temperature variances between seasons, mainly in Europe, moist
Mercator Project globe
Political Map uses lines and/or colors to demonstrate the boundaries of political entities; such as countries, states, and cities; most common type of map
Relief Map demonstrate the contour of the subject area wither with contour lines or shaded areas to indicate elevation
Requerimiento declaration of sovereignty and war read by Spanish military forces to assert their sovereignty over the Americas
Road Map show major highways and roads; can show various features such as colleges, airport, and other information
Semiarid little annual rainfall; extremely dry
Sir Walter Raleigh English writer, poet, soldier, and explorer; tried to colonize Virginia; introduced potatoes and tobacco to England
Subtropical Desert little annual rainfall, summers are very hot and winters are very cold
Sussex passanger-liner sunk in March 1916 by Germany; Wilson then broke diplomatic relationships with Germany
Topographical Map use contour lines and colors to demostrate elevation, lines close together mean a steeper incline; useful for hiking
Treaty of Versailles the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Tropical Equatorial hot and west throughout the year
Created by: MissyVaracalli
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