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SOC TEST 1 2020

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian Sociology Unit Test #1 - Foundations 2020

QuestionAnswer
What is Sociology? The systematic study of human society and social interactions.
What does the term "sociological imagination" mean? This term means "the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society".
Who was C. Wright Mills? The sociologist who devised the term "sociological imagination".
Who was Emile Durkheim? He was a French scholar who studied suicide in the late 1900's.
How did Karl Marx explain history in modern societies? He believed that "conflict - especially class conflict - is necessary in order to produce social change and a better society".
List the five (5) Sociological Perspectives we read and talked about in class? 1. Functionalist perspective 2. Conflict perspective 3. Symbolic Interactionist perspective 4. Feminist Perspective, and 5. Postmodern Perspective.
How do Functionalists view human life? They say that human life is a system whose parts are interdependent, meaning. changes in one element means changes in every other element.
How do Conflict Theorists view human life? They view society as an "arena" in which groups struggle with each other to obtain scarce and valuable resources.
How do Symbolic Interactionists view human life? They study specific cases of how individual people behave in particular face - to - face interactions.
Why can we say that the Conflict perspective is macrosociological? We can say this because it focuses on struggles between various groups and institutions in society.
Why can we say that the Functionalist perspective is macrosociological? We can say this because it focuses on how systems or groups in society are interconnected (like a "web") and change in one system brings changes to other systems.
Why can we say that the Symbolic Interactionist perspective is a microsociological perspective? This theory is microsociological because it focuses on specific cases of how individual people behave in face - to - face interactions.
Which Sociological Theorist used the term "verstehen" and what does it refer to? Max Weber came up with this term. It means "understanding" or "insight". It refers to gaining the ability to see the world as others see it.
What is "Social Darwinism"? This is the idea that only the "fittest" or "strongest" societies survive.
What does the term "anomie" refer to and who came up with it? Emile Durkheim devised this term. It refers to "a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society".
Where was the first school of Sociology established in the United States? It was established at the University of Chicago.
Who was Jane Addams? The person who founded Hull House in Chicago, a famous social agency, where she worked directly with the poorest "slum dwellers" of the city.
Give an example of a "social institution". One example of this is the educational system/ schools.
Who was Harriett Martineau? She was a British sociologist who was "committed to creating a science of society that would be grounded in empirical observations (i.e. recording and analyzing date) and widely accessible to the people".
What does the Postmodernist perspective state about society? This theory states that "existing theories have been unsuccessful in explaining social life in contemporary societies that are characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications".
List the two (2) assumptions that Postmodernists make that we discussed in class. 1.) Rapid social change that occurs as societies move from modern to postmodern conditions has a harmful effect on people; 2.) Postmodern societies are characterized by an information explosion.
What is the basis of the Feminist perspective? This perspective is based on the idea that "women and men are equal and should be equally valued as well as have equal rights".
Why do some Sociologists believe that Harriett Martineau was the first sociologist, not Auguste Comte? Some sociologists believe this because Harriett Martineau was the first to use the scientific method to conduct a sociological study and analyze the data for comparison purposes. (Class notes.)
What were the 3 stages of moral development that Carol Gilligan identified in her Stages of the Ethics of Care theory? 1. Pre-conventional; 2. Conventional; 3. Post-Conventional (Class notes.)
List two (2) facts that relate to the first stage of Carol Gilligan's Ethics of Care theory. 1.) Girls in this stage of moral development base their decisions on the need to survive; 2.) Girls in this stage are also focused on meeting their own needs before meeting others' needs. (Class notes.)
List two (2) facts that relate to the second stage of Carol Gilligan's Ethics of Care theory. 1.) Women in this stage of moral development believe that "there is good in self-sacrifice"; 2.) Women in this stage also gain a sense of satisfaction from positive feelings they gain when they help others meet their basic needs. (Class notes.)
List two (2) facts that relate to the third stage of Carol Gilligan's Ethics of Care theory. 1.) Women in this stage of moral development have a preference for non-violence; 2.) Women in this stage also believe that people should be able to get their needs met without hurting each other. (Class notes.)
Which of the sociological theories that we learned about in this unit are "macro" level theories? Functionalist, Conflict, and Post-modernist theories are all "macro" level theories. (Chart, pg. 29)
Which of the sociological theories that we learned about in this unit are "micro" level theories? Feminist and Post-modernist theories are "micro" level theories. (Chart, pg. 29)
What does the term "social stratification" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources".
Who was W.E.B. DuBois and how does he relate to sociology? He founded the 2nd department of sociology in the U.S. at Atlanta University.
What would sociologists who believe in the "functionalist" theory say is the reason that Anderson, Indiana is experiencing the top 2 "social problems" it is having? Functionalists would say that citizens in Anderson, Indiana are experiencing these "social problems" because the economy - a vital part of society - broke down/failed in the 1970's & '80's. This caused other social systems & institutions to break down too
What would sociologists who believe in the "conflict theory" say is the reason that Anderson, Indiana is experiencing the top 2 "social problems" it is having? Conflict theorists would state that factory owners chose to move their factories to southern states where they could hire workers at a much lower hourly pay rate, leaving former factory workers in Anderson to fend for themselves.
What does the term "positivism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to Auguste Comte's idea that the best way to understand the world is by using the scientific method.
Who was George Herbert Mead? He is considered the founder of the Symbolic Interactionist perspective of Sociology.
What does the term "Looking Glass Self" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the idea that a person will view themselves as they think that others view them - whether their assumption is true or not.
What is one (1) metaphor that can be used when explaining how Structural Functionalists view the world? This world view can be explained using the metaphor of a car. If one part of the engine breaks down, the car will not function. This groups applies the same principle to society and its parts.
What does the term "manifest functions" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "functions that are not intended and/or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit".
What does the term "latent functions" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants".
What does the term "dysfunction" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the undesirable consequences of any element of a society".
What is one (1) example of "manifest functions"? One example of this is when schools transmit knowledge and skills to students. (Knowledge transmission is a primary - or manifest - function of schools.)
What is one (1) example of "latent functions"? One example of this is when students build social networks while in school. (Making friends is a secondary - or "latent" - function of schools.)
Created by: sticklerpjpII
 

 



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