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The Federalists


Who was President Washington's first Secretary of State? Thomas Jefferson
Who was President Washington's first Secretary of the Treasury? Alexander Hamilton
What political party did Thomas Jefferson organize? Democratic-Republican Party
What political party did Alexander Hamilton organize? Federalist Party
What is strict construction of the Constitution? An interpretation of the Constitution believing that the powers of the federal government are strictly defined; Congress only has those powers that the Constitution specifically mentions
What is loose construction of the Constitution? An interpretation of the Constitution believing that the federal government has broad powers
Did Jefferson believe in strict of loose construction of the Constitution? Strict construction
Did Hamilton believe in strict of loose construction of the Constitution> Loose construction
What clause of the Constitution allows Congress "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper" to carry out those powers that are listed in the Constitution? Elastic clause
Who led the Democratic-Republican Party? 1) Thomas Jefferson 2) James Madison
What were 6 beliefs of the Democratic-Republican Party? 1) Strict construction of the Constitution 2) A weak national government 3) Strong state governments 4) Economy based on agriculture 5) Pro-French foreign policy 6) Against the Jay Treaty
What groups supported the Democratic-Republican Party? 1) Farmers 2) Artisans (skilled craftsmen) 3) Frontier settlers
What were 5 beliefs of the Federalist Party? 1) Loose construction of the Constitution 2) Strong national government 3) National bank 4) Commercial economy (based on manufacturing and trade) 5) Pro-British foreign policy 6) For the Jay Treaty
What groups supported the Federalist Party? 1) Bankers 2) Businessmen
In what part of the country was the Federalist Party strongest? Northeast
What treaty aimed at settling commercial and boundary disputes between the United States and Great Britain? Jay Treaty
What political party supported the Jay Treaty? Federalists
What was the most important provision (part) of the Jay Treaty? Great Britain agreed to leave its forts in the Ohio Valley and retreat to the boundary line set by the treaty that ended the Revolutionary War
What was President Adams' policy towards France? Undeclared naval war against France
What were 3 results of Adams' policy towards France? 1) Maintained peace with France 2) Preserved the honor of the U.S. 3) Made Adams less popular among members of his own Federalist Party, who wanted the U.S. to declare war against France
Who was the most important Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during the early years of the United States? John Marshall
What political party was John Marshall? Federalists
How did the Supreme Court decisions under John Marshall strengthen the federal courts? Made the federal courts an independent and equal branch of the United States government
What is judicial review? Power of the courts to declare a law unconstitutional
What is a precedent? An example for future action
What were three important decisions by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall? 1) Marbury v. Madison 2) McCulloch v. Maryland 3) Gibbons v. Ogden
How did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Marbury v. Madison? Declared a federal law unconstitutional
What precedent did Marbury v. Madison set? Judicial Review
Why is judicial review so important to the Supreme Court? Gives the Supreme Court its main check on the power of Congress
What doctrine did the Supreme Court set forth in its McCulloch v. Maryland decision? Doctrine of implied powers
What 2 legal questions were involved in the McCulloch case? 1) Did Congress have the authority to establish the Bank of the United States? 2) Did the Maryland law taxing the BUS unconstitutionally interfere with congressional powers?
What 2 points did the Supreme Court make in McCulloch v. Maryland? 1) Congress had the power to create the BUS 2) Maryland could not tax agencies of the national government, which carried out constitutional powers
What did Chief Justice Marshall say about implied powers in the McCulloch Decision? Congress possessed implied powers that the Constitution did not specifically mention.
What laws did Chief Justice Marshall declare to be supreme in the McCulloch Decision? 1) The Constitution and federal laws 2) Federal laws override state constitutions and state laws
How did the Marshall Court rule on the Maryland state laws that taxed the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States? The Maryland state law that taxed the BUS was unconstitutional
What did the case of Gibbons v. Ogden involve? The state of New York's regulations for steamboats, which did business between New York and another state New Jersey
How did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden? That the federal government had complete control over interstate commerce
What is interstate commerce? Trade between states
What doctrine did the Marshall Court use to settle disagreements between different branches of the national government? The doctrine of judicial review in Marbury v. Madison
What doctrine did the Marshall Court use to settle disagreements between the federal government and the states? The doctrine of implied powers in McCulloch v. Maryland
In what case did the Marshall Court provide the foundation block for the Supreme Court to settle disagreements between competing business interests? Gibbons v. Ogden
What Supreme Court decision set forth a broadly national view of economic interests? Gibbons v. Ogden
What Supreme Court decision set forth a broadly national view of economic affairs? Gibbons v. Ogden
Created by: wzuger
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