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Western Humanities

Primer and Introduction

5 things that go into undertanding a work of art Understanding the intent or goal of the artist...The elements of form present in the work...The ways in which those elements contribute to the artist's goal...The context within which the artwork evolved...The connections of the work to other works.
2 questions asked when analyzing a work of art What is the artist trying to do (the intent of the work)...How well was it done (the evaluation of the execution).
Answers to the two questions asked when analyzing a work of art. Examine the formal elements (formalism) and explore its context (contextualism)
A formal analysis is concerned with the _________ elements of a work separate from context. aesthetic (artistic)
Items examined in the formal analysis of painting, sculpture, or an architectural structure. Line, shape, color, texture, composition, artists technical ability within the medium used.
Formal analysis focuses on...... medium and technique
Items examined in the formal analysis of literary work would explore the relationships among theme, plot, characters, and setting, as well as how well the resources of language---word choice, tone imagery, symbol and so on---are used to support the other elements
Items examined in the formal analysis of film theme, plot, characters (as developed both verbally and non-verbally), and setting, as well as how the resources of cinematography--camera techniques, lighting, sound, editing, and so on...
Factors that a contextual analysis focuses on (first 4) why it was created. how it relates to artistic, social, cultural, historical, and political forces, events, and trends..who the artist is, and what his or her intent and motives were in creating the work.
Common perspectives psychological, feminist, religious, economic, and historical
audience group for whom work is intended
composition the arrangement of constituent elements in an individual work
content the subject matter of the work
content can be based on..... mythology, religion, history, current events, personal history
context the setting in which the art arose, its own time and place
context includes..... political, economic, social, and cultural conditions of the time
convention an agreed upon practice, device, technique, or form
sonnet fourteen line poem with certain specified rhyme schemes; identified by the arrangement of lines as either Italian (Petrarchan) or English (Shakespearean)
genre the type or class to which a work of art, literature, drama, or music belongs.....depending on its style, form, or content
medium the material from which an art object is made
style the combination of distinctive elements of creative execution and expression, in terms of both form and content
technique the systematic procedure whereby a particular creative task is performed
theme the dominant idea of a work....the message or emotion the artist intends to convey
prose the ordinary language used in speaking and writing
poetry a more imaginative and concentrated form of expression usually marked my meter, rhythm, or rhyme
Three things that mark poetry..... meter, rhythm, or rhyme
Two divisions of prose fiction and non-fiction
Three types of nonfiction essays, biography, and autobiography
Two types of fiction short stories, novels
Two cultural expression modes of humanities reflection and artistic expression
Two modes of reflection philosophy and religion
Three modes of artistic expression Visual, Performing, and Literary Arts
Three things that humans do through humanities express their most intenst experiences.....reflect on their most essential truth's......attempt to answer profound universal questions
Three reasons why religion exists helps us to understand and cope with death.....find the good in humanity.....relate to the unknown
The five visual arts painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, film
The four literary arts poetry, prose, drauma, film
The four performing arts music, theater, dance, performance art
Factors that a contextual analysis focuses on (last 3) How does the work relate to other works of the same genre or works of the same period? How does the work relate to the works of other artists or other periods? How does the work relate to other works by the same artist?
Psychological perspective What does the work of art suggest about the psychology of the artist? –What are the sexual or symbolic aspects of the work? –What is the artist’s attitudes toward the subject matter of the work?
Feminist perspective How does the work depict women? –What does it say about gender relationships? –Does it reflect a patriarchal society?
Religious perspective What religious point of view is suggested by the work? –What symbolism is used? –What intercultural connections can be made?
Economic perspective Was the work created as a display of power? –How does the work depict people of different classes? –What is the artist saying about the distribution of wealth?
In literature, genre refers to that two things? form (essay, short stroy, novel, poem, play, film script, television script), specific type within a form (tragedy, comedy, epic, lyric)
Types of form: essay, short story, novel, poem, play, film script, television script
Specific types within a form: tragedy, comedy, epic, lyric
What is a tragedy? Specific type of literature within a form where there is a tragic hero that is brought down by his/her own excessive pride.
What is a comedy? Story with a complicated and amusing plot, usually ending with a happy and peaceful resolution of any comflicts.
What is an epic? A poem, novel, or film that is a relatively long recounting of the life of a hero, or the glorious history of a people.
What is a lyric? A short, subjective poem usually expressing an intense personal emotion.
An epic ______ _ _____ and a lyric _________ __ ____ __ _________. tells a story....expresses an idea or feeling
Lyric poetry includes ballads, elegies, odes, and sonnets.
Ballads dramatic verse meant to be sung or recited often by more than one singer or speaker.
Elegies short, serious meditations, usually on death or other significant themes
Odes short lyric poems dealing with a single theme.
Two types of sonnets Italian (Petrarchan), and English (Shakespearean)
In an essay the theme is articulated as the? Thesis
Thesis the idea or conclusion that the essay will prove or support
In a novel, story, or play the theme is inferred from the content and the development of ideas and imagery.
Plot the action of the story, the arrangement of incidents
Where the theme may be expressed in a fiction? the plot
The plot can be evaluated by how well it supports the theme
Aristotle's three plot evaluatives 1. the action should be whole, with a beginning that does not follow or depend on anything else... 2.a middle that logically follows what went before... 3.an end, or logical culmination of all prior action
The plot should be unified, so that every action is necessary and interrelated with all other actions.
Characters provide the human focus, the embodiment, of the theme; they act out and are affected by the plot
The primary character protagonist
Types of characters protagonist, antagonist, dynamic, static, stock
Stock characters representing a type rather than an individual human being
Setting the background against which the action takes place
An explication identifying a poem's intent and evaluating its execution
Makeup of an English (Shakespearean) poem three 4-line stanzas (quatrains), each with its own rhyme scheme, and a concluding 2-line stanza (couplet), that provides commentary on the preceeding stanzas
three 4-line stanzas quatrain
2-line stanza couplet
rhyme scheme in a shakespearean sonnet abab cdcd efef gg
Two primary types of art representational and abstract
Representational Art true to human perception and presents a likeness of the world much as it appears to the naked eye.
Abstract Art presents a subjective view of the world
Perspective the appearance of depth and distance on a two-dimensional surface; an important convention or representational art
Line the mark made by the artist
Characteristics of lines straight or curved; thick or thin; light or dark; spare or plentiful.
Another name for religious music sacred music
Two types of music religious (sacred) and secular
Examples of religious (sacred) music gregorian chants, masses, requiems, and hymns
Examples of secular music symphonies, songs, and dances
Subtypes of music vocal or choral and instrumental
Definition of music forms particular structures or arrangements of elements
Examples of music forms symphonies, songs, concertos, string quartets, sonatas, masses and operas
Music itself is a combination of tone, tempo, and texture
Tone a musical sound of definite pitch or the quality of the sound
Pitch is determined by the frequency of the air waves producing the sound
Scale a set pattern of tones (or notes) arranged from low to high (or high to low)
Name of a familiar scale Western
Western scale do, re, me, fa, sol, la, ti, do
Tempo the rate of speed of a musical passage, usually set or suggested by the composer
Texture the number and the nature of the voices or instruments employed and how the parts are combined
Melody a succession of musical tones, usually having a distinctive musical shape, or line, and a definite rhythm
Rhythm the recurrent alternation of accented and unaccented beats
Harmony the simulataneous combination of two or more tones, producing a chord.
Created by: jfdr31