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NCE Appraisal

appraisal section

appraisal could include surveys, observations, clinical interviews
subjective format rater's biases may affect score
objective format rater's judgment plays little to no part in scoring
Halo Effect test taker's attributes significantly impacts the rating
short answer tests are free choice
forced choice recognition items
difficulty index indicates % of those who answered each item ___ correctly
.5 difficulty index (value) = 50% answered correctly; 50% answered incorrectly
.25 difficulty index = 25% answered correctly; 75% answered incorrectly
dichotomous/dichotomy = presented w/ 2 opposing forces (MBTI)
in the normative format each item is independent of all other items
in the ipsative format compares traits w/in same person (allows person tested to compare items) Kuder is used for this
in normative tests persons ___ be compared to others who have take test can
a good speed test are set so that no one finishes
power tests are designed to evaluate level of mastery w/o time limit
projective tests rely on free response format
personality tests measures typical performance
spiral tests items get progressively more difficult
cyclical test sections are spiral in nature (in each section questions go from easy to more difficult)
test battery is considered a ____ test horizontal test
horizontal tests measure various factors (math, science)
vertical tests have different versions for different levels
parallel tests 2 versions/forms that are interchangeable
validity refers to whether a test measures what it says it measures
reliability refers to how consistent a test measures an attribute
2 most critical factors in test selection are validity & reliability
1st most important factor in test selection is validity
2nd most important factor in test selection is reliability
5 basic types of validity are content, construct, concurrent, predictive, consequential
content validity (rational or logical) does the test examine or sample behavior under scrutiny? (just sampled memory & not vocabulary)
construct validity test's ability to measure a theoretical construct (intelligence, self-esteem, artistic talent)
concurrent validity deals with how well test compares to other instruments of same purpose
predictive validity (or empirical) test's ability to predict future behavior according to established criteria (DVAC assess, school entrance exams - GRE)
concurrent and predictive are types of criterion related validity
consequential validity ascertain social implications of using tests
a test can be reliable and NOT valid
construct is any trait you cannot directly measure or observe
face validity does test look or appear to measure intended attribute?
incremental validity test is refined & becomes more valid as contradictory items are dropped
synthetic validity looks for tests that have been shown to predict each job element or component (typing or filing)
convergent validity relationship or correlation of a test to an independent measure or trait
discriminant validity test will NOT reflect unrelated variables
subtypes of criterion validity are concurrent and predictive
reliable tests are NOT always valid
valid tests ARE always reliable
test-retest reliability tests for stability (only valid for IQ tests which remain stable)
interrater/interobserver (or scorer reliability) 2 or more persons who grade or assess same responses will produce roughly the same score
reliability & validity are expressed by correlation coefficients & the closer they are to 1.00 the better
a reliability coefficient of 1.00 indicates a perfect score which has no error (generally occurs in physical measurement)
an excellent psychological or counseling test would have a reliability coefficient of .90 - 90% of score measured the attribute and 10% of score is indicative of error
.70 = 70% is true variance and 30% is error variance (70% answered correctly; 30% answered incorrectly)
.70 is generally acceptable for most psychological attributes but ___ is used for admissions for jobs, schools, etc. and sometimes ___ .80 or .90
2 test (test-retest reliability) - to equate true variance (is shared here), you would ___ the coefficient square
IQ = intelligence quotient (division)
Binet's IQ measures MA/CA x 100 mental age divided by chronological age x 100
Francis Galton believed intelligence was normally distributed like height or weight
Galton believed intelligence was also inherited
Charles Spearman - 2 factor theory general ability = G ; specific ability = S - were both applicable to any mental task
fluid and crystallization fluid = flexible; crystallization = rigid & does not change or adapt
J.P. Guilford isolated 120 factors which added up to intelligence; he also is remembered for thoughts on convergent and divergent thinking
convergent thinking is when divergent thoughts & ideas are combined into a singular concept
divergent thinking is ability to generate a novel idea
Binet and Theodore Simon are known for creating 1st standardized IQ test
internal consistency or homogeneity also called inter-item consistency find out if each item on test is measuring same thing as every other item
Kuder Richardson or KR-20; KR-21 can measure if performance on 1 item is truly related to performance on another item
Lee J. Cronbach's alpha coefficient also measures performance on 1 item is truly related to performance on another item
cross-validation examines criterion validity of test by administering the test to a new sample (shrinkage)
Stanford-Binet IQ is standardized
standardized tests are so b/c scoring and administration procedures are formal & well delineated
IQ formula = MA/CA x 100
IQ formula was created by Wilhelm Stern
Today Binet relies on standard age score (SAS) w/ a mean of 100 & standard deviation (SD) of 16
on Binet's test a 9 year old task would be one that 50% of 9 year old could answer correctly
entropy dysfunctional families are too open or too closed
negative entropy healthy family is balanced
Wechsler yields a verbal IQ, performance IQ, & full-scale IQ
WPPSI-III Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence
WAIS-III Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
WISC-III Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Merrill-Palmer Scales of Mental Tests is intelligence tests for infants
when a test is guided by a theory it is known as a theory based test or inventory
group IQ tests Otis Lennon, Lorge-Thorndike, California Test of Mental Abilities
group IQ tests are less accurate and have lower reliability
group IQ tests began in WWI w/ Army Alpha and Army Beta
culture-fair tests - items are known to subject regardless of culture
ACA regulates that tests must be normed on that __ population before they can take it specific
Arthur Jensen wrote an article in 1969 about black/white IQ controversy
John Ertl invented electronic machine to analyze neural efficiency to take place of pen and paper tests
Raymond Cattell responsible for fluid and crystallization intelligence
Robert Williams created (BITCH) Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity - blacks often excelled when given a test laden w/ questions familiar to their community
MMPI-2 - a standardized personality test Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (new version to help dx & treat patients) suitable for those over 18, 6th grade reading level, & is 60-90m long
MMPI-A suitable for 14-18 year old
psychometric any form of mental testing
Likert Scale test relies on a summated or linear rating scale (strongly agree - 5; agree -4)
in projection tests subjects are shown ___ stimuli neutral
formats of projective tests association - what comes to mind when you look at this inkblot; completion - complete this sentence w/ real feelings; construction -drawing a person
examiner bias is common when using projectives & therapists need more training
16 PF is the work of Raymond B. Cattell - Personality Factor Questionnaire for 16 & above
16 PF measures key personality factors such as assertiveness, emotional maturity, & shrewdness
couples can take the 16 PF & be given individual & joint profile for marital counseling
James McKeen Cattell mental test spent time researching mental assessment & its relation to reaction time
tests and inventories that analyze data outside of a given theory are called factor-analytic tests or inventories rather than theory based tests
Oscar Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook - publication to review available tests
projective tests would be favored by ___ clinicians psychodynamic - rely heavily on unconscious mind
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt expressive projective measure
interest inventories are for those high school age and up
interest inventories criticism is emphasis on professional positions more than blue collar
interests and abilities are not correlated
interest inventories are reliable and non-threatening
O*NET Ability Profiler; GATB, LSAT, MCAT are ___ tests aptitude
school selection tests are ___ tests aptitude tests
social desirability client purposely or when in doubt gives unusual responses
acquiescience client always agrees
GRE measures aptitude and achievement (aptitude-achievement test)
standard error of measurement tells how accurate or inaccurate a test score is
low standard error means high reliability
standard error of measurement of 3; Tom scored a 100; prediction is he'll score between 103 and 109 (3 points + or -) X= T+E (X-obtained score, T-true score, E-error)
increasing test length raises reliability
shortening test length decreases reliability
informal assessment techniques include self-reports, case notes, checklists, sociograms of groups, interviews, professional staffings, journals
test manual should give specific target population
remember IQ tests measure 100 w/ SD of 15 and Binet is 100 w/ SD of 16
in normal distribution; 68% of population will fall between plus/minus 1 SD of mean 100-15 or 100+15 (for IQ tests)
if 68% were 96% then it would fall between plus/minus 2 SD of mean (100-30 or 100+30)
public law 93-380 or Buckley Amendment states anyone over 18 can inspect their own records & those of their children
Family Education Rights & Privacy Act stipulates info cannot be released w/o adult consent
Lewis Terman americanized the Binet (Stanford Binet)
item difficulty index is calculate by taking the # of persons tests who answered the item correctly and divide by the total # of persons tested (75/75=1.0)
Created by: zhenry88
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