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WST300 U4 L

WST300: Theorizing the Body from a Feminist Perspective - Gender & the Body

The socially constructed “_____ _____” encourages us to believe that some bodies are more attractive than others, and in essence, worth more than others. Beauty Myth
_____ surgery and _____ disorders are two experiences which impact more women than men in our society. Cosmetic; eating
We can trace a divide in Western thought regarding the body as far back as the writings of Aristotle in ancient Greece. Men were associated with the _____ Women were associated with the _____ mind; body
Societal expectations related to performing “masculinity” and “femininity” impacts our _____. bodies
Some of the things we do to perform our gender has relatively superficial impacts (i.e. _____ _____). ear piercing
At times, what we do to perform our gender has more permanent effects on our physical bodies. A few examples: 1._____ _____ dieting 2. _____ enhancing drugs 3. _____ surgery Long term performance cosmetic
Many _____ activities have an impact on our bodies. gendered
Some performances--such as the masculinized activity of _____ _____--have a very obvious impact on the body. weight lifting
Some activities--such as the gendered norm of discussing _____ in women's friendships--have a less immediately obvious impact on the body. feelings
The _____ reduction achieved through _____ relationships can improve long-term _____ and _____ health outcomes. stress; close; physical; psychological
Gendered activities can have both _____ and _____ outcomes on our health. positive; negative
Despite the fact that we tend to associate masculinity with _____ bodies, feminist theorists argue that the mind-body binary has historically resulted in women being understood almost entirely in terms of their _____. powerful; bodies
Men of _____, and men of the _____ _____, have also been viewed in terms of their bodies much more than _____ class men have. color; working classes; upper
There are differences between people (based on gender, race, and class) in terms of how _____ their bodies are to the way society thinks about them. central
Feminist scholars argue that society primarily thinks about women in terms of their _____. Women’s _____, and other human qualities, often take second stage to how they _____. bodies; minds; look
More than being identified with their bodies, women have also historically been identified with _____. nature
Unfortunately, culture is more _____ than nature. Culture is viewed as the realm of human _____, what separates humankind from other animals. valued; achievement
The connection to nature suggests that women’s bodies—and women themselves—are less _____ and less _____ than men & male bodies. They are “_____”. disciplined; civilized; dangerous
Sherry Ortner in ‘“Nature vs Culture”’ argued: women are assumed 2 be closer 2 nature because of their ___ capabilities & social roles, i.e. ___ ___ - socially constructed connections - hunting, often connected w/men, is not considered closer 2 nature. reproductive; child nurturing;
In Western culture, men have _____ been aligned with the mind and with culture. historically
Women have been _____ aligned with the body and with nature. symbolically
The association of men with the mind/culture and women with nature can be viewed in many cultural products like ____ and _____. For example, women's bodies are often displayed as naturally _____ in nature or even as nature itself. art; fashion; nude
Feminists argue that women’s bodies are viewed as less _____ than men’s. If masculine bodies are more valued than feminine bodies, and women _____ their bodies (rather than their minds), then women are in a double bind. valuable; ARE
_____ _____: Because we LIVE in our bodies, how we EXPERIENCE life is directly related to our bodies and how our bodies are viewed by the society within which we live. Embodied experience
Some feminists have attempted to reclaim the female body and shape into something “_____” (essentially) positive, rather than negative. These theories work with, rather than against, the idea of _____ differences between men and women. inherently; natural
Essentialist theories: _____ _____ and ideas of “womanliness” (1976). Adrienne Rich
Essentialist theories: _____ (some strands of it) Ecofeminism
Feminist essentialist theories are still a _____ and potentially _____ perspective. universalizing; limiting
Feminist thought about gendered bodies under the social constructionist framework can be grouped into __ broad themes. three
Social constructionist framework: women’s oppression under patriarchy impacts their _____. bodies
Social constructionist framework: bodies are “disciplined” in line with cultural dictates regarding femininity and masculinity (theorist: _____ ______). Michel Foucault
Women and men have agency with which to _____ oppression, including bodily oppression. resist
One of the primary determining factors of health is gender. For example, the _____ you are likely to suffer from, even how you are likely to die, are influenced by it. diseases
_____ choices (i.e. smoking, drinking, sports you play, etc.) and likelihood to seek _____ for illness/seek _____ are both impacted by gender. Lifestyle ; treatment; counseling
Because women have historically been understood in terms of their bodies, and because the female body has often been viewed as “inferior” to male bodies, the female body has been especially prone to _____ and ______. pathologization; medicalization
The ways in which the female body differs from the male body (i.e. _____ capacities) have been of particular focus. 1. _____ ____ (it is considered “abnormal” if women don’t remove some of it) 2. the invention of _____ reproductive; body hair; PMDD
_____: deeming something to be “abnormal”. Pathologization
_____: deeming that something needs to be treated by medical professionals. Medicalization
It is interesting that PMDD is only recognized as a _____ disorder, yet cultural media products clearly associate it with female reproductive _____. psychiatric; anatomy
There is no denying that many women experience physical symptoms of discomfort related their menstruation cycles, but how we understand those systems as a ____, & our ____ to them, changes over time. PMDD was not a recognized disorder until ____. culture; reaction; 1993
First and foremost, the ideal feminine body is ____. However, you must also be ____. thin; toned
1991 “The Beauty Myth” by Naomi Wolf: The beauty ideal is ____ & ____ defined. narrow; rigidly
1991 “The Beauty Myth” by Naomi Wolf: The ideal is largely _____ (the model isn’t real) . unattainable
1991 “The Beauty Myth” by Naomi Wolf: The ideal is _____ and _____. raced; classed
1991 “The Beauty Myth” by Naomi Wolf: The ideal prescribes standards of _____, not just standards of appearance behavior
1991 “The Beauty Myth” by Naomi Wolf: The ideal works to counteract the _____ women have gained in other areas of their lives. freedoms
Definitions of beauty shift over _____. Time
Feminists point out that the ideal feminine body has continued to _____ as women have gained power _____, _____, _____... shrink; politically; economically; educationally
Both the causes and effects of the Beauty Myth are _____. Jean Killbourne argues that the primary purpose of the mass media is to sell _____! economic; products
Advertisements do more than sell products; they also sell us _____ and _____ about family, love, lifestyle, etc. norms; values
The “ideal image” that ads encourage us to aim for is all but unattainable, especially for anyone who is not _____, not _____-_____, not naturally _____, etc. white; able-bodied; thin
The diet, exercise and beauty industries are ENORMOUS. Perpetuating our _____ is good for business. insecurities
As individuals, we often argue that we are immune to media messages, that we can/do ____ them. But a great deal of research suggests that media messages may work on us ____, and that they do have an influence on how we feel about ourselves and others. ignore; subconsciously
Negative outcomes of cultural beauty ideals include: ____ of bodies which do not meet the ideal, Poor ____ ____ and low self esteem, ____ against women, ____ disorders, ____ surgery Devaluation; body image; Violence; Eating; Cosmetic
Eating disorder prevalence is shaped by ____, ____, ____, and ____. gender, class, race and age
1 in __ college women suffer from an eating disorder. 5
As many as __ women, and __ men suffer from anorexia or bulimia. 10 million; 1 million
_____ _____ are the most likely to develop an eating disorder, followed by lesbian women and gay men. Heterosexual men are the least likely. Heterosexual women
40% of newly identified cases of anorexia are in girls __-__ years old. 15-19
There has been a rise in incidence of ____ in young women 15-19 in each decade since 1930. anorexia
_____ _____: is characterized by severe weight loss; those suffering are actually slowly starving themselves. Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa is accompanied by a _____ body image. distorted
Anorexics believe they are “fat” when in reality they are dangerously underweight. Body weight is controlled through self imposed _____, excessive _____, _____ drugs, etc starvation; exercise; diuretic
_____ _____: a pattern of binging on food, followed by purging through vomiting, the use of laxatives and/or extreme fasting. Bulimia Nervosa
_____ _____: a recurring pattern of binge eating, without compensatory counter measures. Compulsory Overeating
“____, ____ for Thinness, Body ____”: The “Three D’s”: there are many reasons why a person may develop an unhealthy pattern of food consumption, just one of which is to keep in line with cultural beauty standards and their outcomes. Dieting; Drive; Dissatisfaction
One overarching motivation for unhealthy food consumption patterns is the attempt to ____ one’s life, an idea that advertisers capitalize on. Advertising messages perpetuate the idea that by controlling their ____, women can control their lives. control; bodies
We cannot fully understand eating disorders unless we _____ them within American dieting and exercise culture more broadly. contextualize
Bordo argues that people who suffer from anorexia or obesity are often represented as abnormal “freaks”, when in reality, these two conditions are logical extensions of what we do think is _____. normal
There are social _____ for being on a diet. rewards
We have moved beyond wanting just SLIM bodies, we now want FIRM/TONED bodies. _____ management exemplifies this. Thin bodies must also be firm Cellulite
_____ meanings are layered over the body. Moral
The toned body is read as: you _____ about yourself, you have control over your natural _____. You have _____. care; impulses; willpower
The obese body is read as: _____, _____, lacking _____. lazy, greedy; control
We oscillate between images of very spare “minimalist” thin bodies, and very muscular, toned bodies because both are “read” as having the right ____. attitude
_____ and _____ _____ explain the fact that our culture is characterized by BOTH the “Beauty Myth” and an obesity “epidemic”. Economics, economic inequalities.
Women are ____ likely to be overweight than men, the poor ____ likely to be overweight than the wealthy, communities of color ____ overweight than their white counterparts. These trends mark INEQUALITIES at the societal level, not a lack of will power. more; more; more
It takes ____ to achieve the beauty ideal. Yet many women who do not have such access are often suffering from ____ and it’s related illnesses (i.e. diabetes). resources; obesity
Women account for __._% of total cosmetic surgery clients. 91.4
Rates of elective cosmetic surgery continue to rise. There was a __% rise in total surgical cosmetic surgeries from 2000 to 2010. 7
The number of plastic surgeries increase every year while the average age of those seeking it _____. drops
Women are told they can stop/slow _____ by literally _____ new and better bodies. aging; buy
The _____ _____ of surgery are usually artificially minimized. health risks
From 2000 to 2010 there was a: 39% increase in women’s _____ _____, 133% increase in women’s _____ _____, 628% increase in _____ _____. breast augmentations; buttocks lifts; Botox injections
Of surgical procedures, women’s _____ _____ remains the leader—even when men’s surgeries are added to the data. breast augmentation
Caucasians (non-Hispanic) constitute __% of cosmetic plastic surgery patients. 70
_____ account for 11% of cosmetic plastic surgery patients. Hispanics
_____ _____ account for 8% of cosmetic plastic surgery patients. African Americans
Feminist responses to plastic surgery and eating disorders are a ____ act between: ____ women’s rights to control their bodies, and working to increase _____ of the socially structured pressures which influence a person’s decisions. balancing; defending; awareness
It is too simple to suggest that women who elect to have surgeries are dupes of corporate beauty messages. ____ people may make the decision to participate in beauty rituals in order to benefit from the ____ of a cultural beauty standard. Rational; achievement
It’s important to recognize that even though cultural messages regarding beauty are pervasive and carry a great deal of significance, men and women will always retain their ____ to resist messages. agency
The Council on Size and Weight Discrimination works to separate the ideal of “____” from the norms of “____”. healthy; thinness
Created by: silvrwood



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