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WST300 U3 P2 Lec

WST300: Understanding Gender in American Popular Culture & Advertising

_____ is the primary carrier of culture, the primary way in which we share signs. Language
_____ is the total way of life shared by members of a society, or smaller communities within a larger society. Culture
Because America is a nation of immigrants, with a history of colonization, it has several _____ as well as a “_____” culture which most Americans are constantly exposed to. subcultures; dominant
Culture is made up of: _____ - the ability to communicate with symbols (oral, sign, writing). _____ - shared ideas about what is desirable or undesirable. _____ - shared rules of conduct (mores, laws) Language; Values; Norms
_____ _____ is aspects of culture which are widely accessible and broadly shared. Popular culture
Popular culture includes: _____ _____ like movies, television, “genre fiction” (e.g. romances, scifi, mysteries), music (e.g. rock, pop, rap, hip-hop, country, etc.); _____ like Facebook Mass media; Technology
_____ is an ideology which emphasizes the purchasing of material goods. Consumerism
In terms of values, American culture believes that buying stuff is _____! A large part of our identities is based on what we _____: “I am what I _____”. good; have; buy
All American _____ _____ value consumerism. social classes
The rise of consumerism is related to: 1. _____ and the ease of mass production 2. rising _____ (that is, most households have some _____ income) industrialism; wealth; expendable
The primary goal of much popular media is to get us to _____ _____. buy products
Consumerism is communicated through American popular culture. 1. We often see consumerism _____ in our popular culture. 2. _____ is a major supporter of popular media and many _____ messages are delivered along with our popular cultural products. glorified; Advertising; advertising
Popular media and advertising always contain _____ _____ which go beyond the surface level of the media’s theme, or the accompanying advertising. These messages have nothing to do with the art form that is being shared or the product for sale. cultural messages
_____, _____, and _____ messages are often communicated. Economic, political, and cultural
Cultural messages are _____ _____, just as culture more generally is. socially constructed
All cultural products contain both _____ and _____ messages. intended; unintended
Women in media are _____ (there are more men on screen). Underrepresented
Women in media are often _____ (voice-overs are typically male). silent
In media women’s _____ occupations (service work, low skill jobs) are underrepresented, and _____ jobs are over-represented. real; professional
Women in media are more often shown doing _____ and in the _____ context more than men are. housework; family
Women in media are represented _____ (unintelligent, passive, dependent) more often than men are. negatively
In media women are often reduced to the _____ _____ which distinguish them from men (i.e. breasts) body parts
Men comprise __/__ of all prime-time TV characters; women are often “_____” characters. 2/3; support
Women are usually depicted as one _____ stereotype or another. For example, women are usually depicted as “_____” (pure, maternal) or “_____” (unclean, sexual deviant, a danger to men and society). extreme; Madonnas; Whores
Women are __ times as likely as male characters to be shown provocatively dressed. 4
Women who are not _____-_____ and _____ are rarely portrayed, unless to bring attention to that characterization. able-bodied; heterosexual
TV downplays the “significance of _____ discrimination” by suggesting that women’s problems are _____. systematic; individualized
TV often portrays the _____ _____ in a negative light. women’s movement(s)
_____ _____ (1994) studied the significance of daytime television for women. Elayne Rapping
Elayne Rapping argues that _____ are women’s TV, so they can deal with women’s issues in more empathetic ways. For example, they often they treat women’s issues “more seriously” than “highbrow” art. Soaps
Soaps are able to break the norm because men of power don’t take soaps _____, so they _____ the power they have in women’s lives. seriously; underestimate
“It is the total lack of social _____ that allows soaps to present the most _____ _____ storylines on television….” (Rapping, 1994). realism; progressive feminist
One explanation for gendered (or even sexist) messages is that there is an assumed _____ _____ for these cultural products. ideal audience
John Berger, in Ways of Seeing, writes that: “The ideal spectator is always assumed to be _____ and the image of the woman is designed to _____ him.” male; flatter
Men _____, women _____. Men look at women, and women watch themselves being looked at.” Males do the “_____” (they are the viewers) and females are the _____ of their gaze. act; appear; gazing; objects
Importantly, the spectator is almost always not only assumed to be male, but also _____. heterosexual
Women in images may receive and return the male gaze, but they never _____ _____ it (that is, they are not often empowered sexually). act on
Irving Goffman (1979) found that ads typically show men as _____ than women, unless the woman is _____ and the man is a person of _____. taller; white; color
Irving Goffman (1979) found that ads typically never show women’s hands in a _____ _____. powerful grasp
Irving Goffman (1979) found that ads typically never show men sitting on the _____, or in another symbolically _____ position. floor; subordinate
Irving Goffman (1979) found that ads typically never show men _____ their eyes to social _____. averting; inferiors
Ads do not portray women and men as they _____, but rather how we think they _____ be. Are; should
We invariably find ourselves to be _____ in relation to ads (that is the point—otherwise we wouldn’t feel the need to buy a product to improve ourselves!) inadequate
Men are: seen in _____ poses and/or _____ the camera full on. active; facing
When posed with a woman, male bodies are usually in the _____, or take up more _____. foreground; space
When posed in sexually suggestive ways, men’s bodies are even more likely to appear in _____ (i.e. full eye contact with the audience). control
Women are more often posed in _____ suggestive ways than men, and often face away from the camera so as not to appear too _____/_____. sexually; active/strong
Women are more likely than men to not be _____ at the audience (the camera), and very often have a male _____ in the shot. looking; spectator
In advertisements, the women are often _____- we only see her legs or her midriff; the women themselves are not important, only their _____ body parts are. disembodied; sexualized
Women of color are even more disadvantaged by the media; they are shown in even more _____ and _____ ways than white women. limiting; narrow
Women of color are much more likely to be _____, _____, or _____ characteristics than white women. Fetishized; animalistic; exotic
From jeans to cars, and from alcohol to candy bars, _____ is used to sell EVERYTHING in our culture. Yet, it is most often _____ bodies which are used in the display. sex; women's
Women are sent mixed messages through sexualized images. They are told to be both _____ & _____ at the same time. Both _____-like and available, but also child-like and _____. This dichotomous expectation is referred to as the _____/_____ dichotomy. sexy; virginal; adult; forbidden; “Madonna/Whore”
Kim France (1996), “Feminism Amplified”: _____ _____ has created space for women to explore topics not often permitted to them– such as sexuality. Rock music
“Rock succeeds where textbook feminism has stalled for a variety of reasons. A huge question that sixties feminism failed to answer had to do with sex: Could a healthy heterosexual _____ be reconciled with good movement _____?” libido; politics
The rockers are modeling their sexual presentation off of what has historically been _____ presentation. They are not really expressing a unique _____ voice then. men’s; feminine
Rock music is still _____ by a largely male industry, and _____ in largely male industry. Women don't really have much _____. They are still often portrayed as the “_____, _____” girl. produced; circulated; control; cute, angry
Popular culture media has incredible influence on our lives, even when we are _____ of the messages being communicated. unconscious
We are constantly bombarded with media images of what it means to be _____ and _____ in our culture. male and female
Media messages impact how we feel about our _____, our _____, and our “_____”. bodies; relationships; successes
_____, _____, _____, and _____ are portrayed in narrow and limiting ways. This limits the range of “_____” behaviors for men and women. Gender, race, sexuality, class; acceptable
Through much popular media and advertising, women learn that they need to be more _____ than men. They need to be _____, less _____, less _____. They need to focus on their _____ more. controlled; passive; visible; powerful; bodies
Because there are so few “non-gendered” messages/images (for example), such messages often appear _____. natural
Culture is directly shaped by our society’s ____ structures & directly works to ____ those power hierarchies in our minds, which results in ____/____ the power structure itself. Thus, ____ will be perpetuated, unless the cycle is ____ broken. power; reinforce; recreating/bolstering; inequalities; intentionally
_____ _____ is the process by which aspects of one culture become part of, are incorporated, into another. Cultural diffusion
_____ _____ is discomfort resulting from exposure to a different culture. Cultural shock
_____ _____ is when one part of culture changes more rapidly than another. Cultural lag
Created by: silvrwood



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