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WST300 Q1

Women & Gender in Contemporary Society - Quiz 1

Who published The Vindication of the Rights of Woman? Mary Wollstonecraft
What publication is considered the first feminist manifesto, and when was it published? The Vindication of the Rights of Woman; 1792
How did Wollstonecraft argue for equal rights of women in The Vindication of the Rights of Woman? Wollstonecraft used the male-identified and respected traditions of philosophy, politics, and religion in writing her manifesto - she used their language.
First wave feminism was a _____-issue movement. Single
The entire goal of first wave activism was to do what? Secure the right to vote for women [suffrage]
The _____ _____ _____ in ____ was the first women’s rights convention in the United States. Seneca Falls Convention; 1848
_____ _____, the former slave of an abolitionist, made eloquent speeches in favor of suffrage, inspiring the women to adopt it as the centerpiece of their political work going forward. Frederick Douglas
_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ was based on Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence. It included assertions of many rights for women, including property rights, but suffrage was the most important and controversial element. The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Women involved in _____-related political movements became politicized about women’s rights. Race
What two reasons did anti-suffragists use to oppose voting rights for women? Women were seen as intellectually incapable of participating as citizens; They feared the threat to established gender roles that confined women within the domestic sphere.
Anti-suffragists who feared the threat to established gender roles that confined women within the domestic sphere further saw suffrage as a threat to what? Men’s power over the government and the overall direction of society
First wave feminism essentially ended with what? The passage and then the ratification of the 19th amendment to the constitution
When was the 19th amendment ratified? 1920
The 19th amendment was originally drafted in ____ by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. 1878
What legally gave women the federal right to vote in the U.S.? 19th amendment to the constitution
Name three movements that fueled second wave feminism. Civil Rights movement; Protests against the Vietnam War; Gay Liberation
In the 1960s and 1970s, women realized that even among radical, progressive men, _____ and _____ were rampant, and women were still oppressed even in these seemingly enlightened settings. misogyny and sexism
One of the key texts for second wave feminism is Betty Friedan’s book _____ _____ _____, an incredibly popular best seller published in 1963. The Feminine Mystique
According to Friedan, American women had been held captive by a set of ideas that defined female happiness as total involvement in the roles of _____ and _____. wife and mother
At the time that The Feminine Mystique was published, psychiatrists popularized the notion that any woman unhappy with full-time occupation as a house wife must be _____. neurotic
One problem with Friedan’s analysis was that it reflected a _____ or _____ class, _____ women’s bias. middle or upper class; White
In 1966, Friedan was among the 28 founders of the _____ _____ _____ _____, which remains the largest feminist organization in the U.S. National Organization for Women (NOW)
Some of NOW's 1st political platform: gov't sponsored & mandated __ __ policies; gov't sponsored __; reproductive freedom including __, __ __, & adequate reproductive health care; equality of opportunity in __; __ equity; & passage of the __ __ __ maternity leave; childcare; abortion; birth control; education; pay; Equal Rights Amendment
“Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex” is the text for what? The Equal Rights Amendment
The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul, an important first wave feminist and activist for suffrage, in ____. It was brought up in Congress every year from 1923 to 1970, but was only voted on 3 times and was _____ for various reasons each time. 1923; defeated
Since ____, the ERA has been reintroduced in every session of Congress, but has never passed. 1982
An important slogan for second wave feminists is “_____ _____ _____ _____.” the personal is political
Second wave feminism was less _____, & there was internal conflict, but this is specifically because it focused on a huge variety of issues, which led to dissent about which issues should predominate. unified
_____ _____ sought to work politically within the existing social and economic system to secure reforms for women and progress toward full equality of opportunity between the sexes. Liberal feminists
The ultimate goal of liberal feminists is complete _____ of women [as individuals] into American society as it is currently structured. integration (or assimilation)
The _____ _____ doctrine used by liberal feminists ignores social difference and social categories and holds that all members of the society should have a basic set of civil rights regardless of their social location. Natural Rights
Name some of the campaigns liberal feminists worked toward. affirmative action programs, federally funded childcare, ERA, to eliminate sex-identification information from employment ads and newspapers, and open admission to bars and clubs previously off limits to women
_____ _____ wanted to attack the system and the society, which for them was synonymous with patriarchy—so men and male privilege is the enemy. Radical feminism
Radical feminists often advocate _____ as an important strategy for achieving the revolution. separatism
The word radical means to the _____. root
Radical feminists were more likely to align themselves with _____ rights, which some liberal feminists were less likely to be involved with because they wanted feminism to have a respectable face to match assimilationist goals. gay
_____ feminists were among the first to emphasize intersectionality. Socialist
The inextricable links between race, class, and gender oppression is _____. intersectionality
Socialist feminism saw _____ as the enemy and as the fundamental source of all oppression based on social identity. capitalism
Today socialist feminists are especially sympathetic to _____-_____ activists and _____ _____ who are fighting for workers’ rights. anti-globalization; labor unions
Socialist feminists were critical of the narrow _____ and _____ bias of other feminist groups, who they accused of favoring middle class and White women. class and race
The most important characteristic of third wave feminism is that we acknowledge _____ among women and within gender categories. differences
Third wave feminism critiques White, middle-class focus of second-wave feminism and works to expand feminist activism along the lines of _____, _____, and _____. race, class, and sexuality
A critical point in discussing third wave feminism is that it is very difficult to _____ _____ and to _____. pin down; define
Instead of grassroots activism, third wave feminism is focused on two types of tactics: _____ and engaging with _____ _____. lobbying; popular culture
_____-_____ is defined by attitudes that are openly hostile to feminism Anti-feminism
Anti-feminists are often politically _____ oriented and often involved with _____ Christianity. right; Evangelical
Anti-feminists charge that feminism is anti-_____, anti-_____, _____, or that all feminists are radical, man-hating _____. family; god; unpatriotic; lesbians
_____-_____ is characterized by the belief that feminism has succeeded in its goal of eliminating sexism and that we can now move on to other, more pressing issues. post-feminism
Women’s studies is an interdisciplinary field of teaching and research that puts _____ at the center of inquiry. gender
Women’s studies is a field that has and continues to rethink women’s roles and experiences throughout _____. history
Women’s studies examines how _____ _____ have often excluded women and then has supplied new information to fill in those gaps. traditional disciplines
Name a woman whose tireless work help to put an end to the lynching of African American men. Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Women’s studies uses a _____ _____ framework for examining the world. social constructionist
When we say something is socially constructed we mean that a particular concept or practice is constructed at a particular _____ within a particular _____ to have certain _____. time; group; meanings
_____, _____, acts, or even [cultural] objects have socially constructed meanings. Identities; practices
Women’s studies recognizes the fact that our gender affects us, that it affects our _____ lives, our _____, our experiences with the _____, with _____, in _____. personal; relationships; workplace; school; politics
Women’s studies considers how _____, _____, _____, _____ _____, and _____—along with gender—shape both women’s and men’s everyday experiences. race, class, ethnicity, sexual orientation, ability, and age
Women’s studies emerged from a _____ _____ movement. social justice
A _____ is a person who believes in and/or works toward social, economic, and political equality for women. feminist
Each one of us is born into specific social categories = _____. ascription
Race, class, gender, as well as ability = _____ _____ ascribed status
What is defined as the _____ depends upon how power is distributed in a specific society. This is about the ways in which some groups have access to greater opportunities and enjoy certain privileges. norm
What is the U.S. gender norm and "other?" men/women
What is the U.S. race norm and "other?" White/Non-White
What is the U.S. class norm and "other?" Middle/Poor
What is the U.S. sexuality norm and "other?" Hetero/Non-Hetero
What is the U.S. ability norm and "other?" Able-bodied/Disabled
The very, very wealthy are not treated as the _____, but they are treated as the _____ that every middle class individual is trying to reach. norm; ideal
Social institutions include: _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____. education, workplace, religion, family, peers, government/law, medicine/health, and media
Women’s studies is about analyzing and understanding _____ of all kinds for the purpose of moving towards greater social justice. inequalities
The observable differences between men and women are primarily related to ______. GENDER
______ refers to the two biologically differentiated categories of male and female. SEX
Sex is characterized as an _____ status. In other words, it is a label which is given to us based on certain criteria. ascribed
Determining if someone is male or female at birth is based on a number of different criteria in Western medicine, such as: _____ _____; _____ _____; _____ ______ characteristics: _____ _____ - external; _____ _____ - internal; _____, _____ size, _____, et Sex chromosomes; Sex hormones; Secondary sexual; Sex organs; Sex tissues; Hair, body, musculature
About 1 in __ people’s bodies are not clearly “male” or “female”, per the medical community’s guidelines 100
At times, members of the medical community make a decision regarding someone’s sex. This suggests two things: The human body does not conform to only __ distinct make-ups; in many ways, our understanding of sex is _____ _____. 2 ;culturally constructed
_____ = bodies which do not neatly fit into our culturally constructed sex categories of “male” and “female Intersex
About 1 in 650 people are born with an _____ chromosome set. The medical community usually assigns these children to the “male” sex. XXY
Intersex = catch-all for 3 subgroups w/ mix of male & female characteristics: "true" hermaphrodites (H) - 1 __ & 1 __; male pseudoH - __ & some aspects of female genitalia but no __ : & female pseudoH - __ & some aspects of male genitalia but no __. testis; ovary; testes; ovaries; ovaries; testes
In our society, gender is a _____ status. master
_____ refers to the normative dispositions, behaviors, and roles that cultures assign to each sex. Gender
Gender is characterized as an “_____” status. That is, it is something we learn to perform. achieved
In American culture, we think of gender as something which is: _____ (two distinct categories which are mutually exclusive);Tied to _____ and thus, “natural," stable and unchanging. Binary; biology
As opposed to the essentialism of American ideology, in reality, gender is _____ _____. culturally constructed
Cultural construction, the process through which a culture defines what constitutes “gender” in that particular place and time, happens at the _____ level. societal
Cultural construction includes defining _____ _____ genders are recognized and what _____ belong to each gender category. how many; behaviors
_____ is a group of people who lived in organized relationship to one another. It is a population of people who share the same geographic territory and who are bound together by politics and economics. Society
_____ is the total way of life shared by members of a community. It includes not only language, values and symbolic meanings, but also technologies and material objects. Culture
While gender norms are defined at the societal level, on a daily basis we live out our gender at the _____ level. individual
We create/construct our gender through our daily behaviors and interactions. Social scientists call this “_____ _____ _____”. performing our gender
Gender is _____; it is continually created and recreated; gender is dependent upon us constantly “_____ _____”, even as our individual gender performance might change over time. fluid; doing gender
Some societies have more than two recognized genders: _____ in India; _____ _____ among the indigenous Plains tribes. Eunuchs; Two Spirit
The categories of Man and Woman are not _____. natural
Sex does not necessarily determine _____. Gender
Gender structures every aspect of our lives and _____. In turn, the same institutions which are influenced by cultural gender norms, reinforce gender norms upon us. institutions
_____ = the process of learning gender roles Socialization
What is expected of us changes according to our _____ _____, for example, changes with _____ and changes with _____ _____. social position; age; life role
What are the two major types of theory that try to explain why gender exists? Biological Essentialist; Social Constructionist
Theories which concentrate on processes at the societal level = _____. Macrotype
Theories which concentrate on processes at the individual level = _____. Microtype
What are the 3 primary theories of gender learning in sociology? Structural-Functional theory; Conflict theory; Symbolic Interactionist theory
Biological essentialism is an _____ and _____ theory based in _____ and _____ _____. Essentialist theory; Microtype theory; Sociobiology; Hormonal theories
All Biological Essentialist theories argue that: Gender is _____; social behavior can be _____ inherited. Gender _____ is due to _____-linked personality and behavioral differences. natural; genetically; stratification; sex
Structural functionalism is a ___-_____ and _____theory. Non-essentialist Macrotype
Structural functionalism concentrates on how societies maintain _____; it views society as a set of interrelated social structures which all together may slowly evolve. Social processes which lead to societal instability are called “_____”. stability; dysfunctions
Structural functionalism argues that socialization is rooted in social _____ such as schools, families, religious organizations, etc. which work to develop children into _____ _____ of society. institutions; productive members
A critique of Structural functionalism is that socialization which _____ existing social structures also socializes people to accept and reproduce social _____. replicates; inequalities
Conflict theory is a ___-_____ and _____ theory. Non-essentialist Macrotype
Conflict theory views society as being in a state of constant change while groups compete for _____. The theory recognizes the existence of social inequalities and argues that points of _____ can result in social change. resources; stress
In research practice conflict theory focuses on how groups which _____ from existing social structures work to maintain their _____. benefit; privilege
Symbolic interactionism is a ___-_____ and _____ theory. Non-essentialist Microtype
Symbolic interactionist theory concentrates on the way _____ behave and how they give meaning to their behaviors. The theory argues that “meaning” is rooted in _____, and that it is through them that _____ are negotiated. individuals; relationships; meanings
Symbolic interactionist theory uses the concept of the “_____ _____ _____" to argue that we develop our self concepts by learning to view ourselves as we think others view us. looking glass self
Binaries do more than organize life into groups which are treated as being polar opposites of one another; they organize groups into _____. This is where feminists begin to have trouble with the way our society approaches _____. hierarchies; gender
“That’s just the way it is” suggests that there is some sort of “_____” to the way a society has organized itself, and that if something can be proven “natural” than it cannot be questioned and is “_____” by default. naturalness; right
It has oft been argued that women are naturally __ to men, so their inferior status in society is not a form of __. Thus feminist scholars took up the idea of gender to argue that gender inequality is not natural, as __ & even __ are not natural. inferior; oppression; gender; sex
_____ _____ is the imposition of perceived ‘typical’ gender behaviors onto another person Gender Policing
Gender policing is often the consequence of gender _____. transgression
Gender policing can include the following: • _____ _____, treating those who don’t conform with hostility and violence • _____ the _____ of others to express their gender in their own way • Labeling others as “___", "___," or "___." Peer bullying; Denying the rights; slut, dyke, or fag.
Some of the ways that parents police gender are when they don’t allow their kids to engage in activities or have things that they associate with the opposite sex - as seen in _____ vs. soldiers; _____ vs. pants, and _____ vs. blue. Barbies; skirts; pink
Early conformity to emphasized femininity/masculinity may cause __ ideas about gender appropriate behavior, kids to unfairly police others with __ & hurtful __, kids to be at risk for early __, __ injuries. rigid; violence; language; sexualization; sports
As part of the socialization process, kids eventually _____ gender policing and become involved in ___-_____ as a way to avoid being ostracized, targeted, or simply found “wanting.” internalize; self-policing
While boys are given much more _____, they are also punished more harshly for ___-_____ behavior. freedom; cross-gender
Name 5 traits associated with masculinity. Powerful (socially); Strong (physically); Aggressive (in relationships); Competitive; Tough (emotionless);
Name 5 traits associated with femininity. Weaker (socially); Not take up a lot of space (physically); Passive (in relationships); Caregivers; Attractive; Sensitive (emotional)
Name the 5 themes of James Doyle’s (1995) adult masculinity. Don’t be female; Be successful; Be aggressive; Be sexual; Be self-reliant
Name Julia T. Wood’s (2001) five themes of adult femininity. Appearance (still) counts; Be sensitive and caring; Being treated negatively; Be superwoman; There is no single meaning attributed to “femininity” anymore
Mulan’s value as an individual (in the eyes of her society) was directly tied to her ability to pass as a _____. As a woman, the judge of her worth was in her ability to be a _____ (for a man). man; bride
As the Mulan song lyrics suggest (“I’ll make a man out of you”), masculinity can be _____. taught/learned
There is a spectrum of masculinity. In Mulan, Captain Shang is represented as much more respected than the Councilman (who is technically his superior). The traits of masculinity he exhibited largely focused on his ___ ___ and his skill in ___ ___. physical body; combat arts
In Mulan, masculinity is contrasted with femininity (“did they send me daughters, when I asked for sons?”) in a clear hierarchy of _____. value
We are largely a _____ _____ society. Masculinity and femininity are constructed as mutually exclusive opposites within that framework binary gender
American culture is _____, meaning that masculinity (and therefore, men) are more valued than femininity (and women). patriarchal
Masculinity is more _____ defined than femininity. Men are also more _____ held to norms of masculinity than women are held to norms of femininity. narrowly; rigidly
Because gender is a _____ _____ (that is, it permeates every aspect of our lives), and because masculinity is more privileged than femininity, women face _____ over their life course. master status; discrimination
Gender is a _____ __ _____ which organizes human social life in culturally patterned ways. system of meaning
Gender is also a system of _____ _____. Stratification results in inequality. social stratification
Teaching young girls to be nurturing and domestic - differences in life chances have been noted in: Education (i.e. gender segregation in the _____ fields); _____ (i.e. the wage gap) STEMS; Employment
Some of the M/F life expectancy difference is due to biology (women’s hormones increase their life expectancy), but much more is due to gender: men are more likely to die of ____ ____ than women - boys are encouraged to prove their ____. violent accidents; manliness
Ideas about the “natural” differences between men and women can become _____-_____ _____. self-fulfilling prophecies
_____: socially constructed category that divides people into groups based on visible physical characteristics such as skin color, eye shape, hair texture, etc. RACE
Although race is related to the physical body, the meaning we give these superficial differences between us are entirely _____ _____. There are NO actual genetic differences between the various races socially constructed
_____: a socially constructed category, a way of grouping people based on their shared culture, such as religion, language, and history. Ethnicity
A commonality among those which are considered minority groups is the experience of _____. inequality
_____: the belief that the physical and cultural characteristics associated with a group of people are inferior and thus unequal treatment of the group and its members is justified. Racism
Racism can occur at both the _____ and _____ level. individual; institutional
A _____ is an oversimplified idea about members of a certain group. It is developed and circulated throughout a society via _____ _____ such as popular media and art. stereotype; cultural channels
A _____ is a negative attitude that people hold toward others. prejudice
_____ is the behavior of treating someone unequally. Discrimination
_____ can make us disproportionately blame certain groups of people for social problems and overlook other possible explanations for what we observe. Prejudice
_____ _____ is a group of people who roughly share the same economic potential, social power, and prestige. Social Class
Income level is important in determining social class, but equally important are the specific mannerisms (_____, _____ _____, etc.) and _____ behaviors associated with each social class. dress, speech patterns; lifestyle
Who were the two most prominent thinkers behind the concept of social class? Karl Marx and Max Weber
What are the four common groupings of America's social classes? Poor, working class, middle class, upper class
About __/__ of Americans experience upward mobility. 1/3
The concept of the “_____ _____” is often used to justify inequality in the United States. American Dream
_____ _____ is the presentation we craft to attract those we are interested in romantically. Sexual identity
_____ is the institutions, structures of understanding, and practical orientations that make heterosexuality seem not only coherent—that is, organized as a sexuality—but also privileged Heteronormativity
Heteronormativity is a form of power that exerts itself on people of every sexual orientation through the assumed _____ of specific practices and institutions. naturalness
_____: attitudes, actions, and institutional practices that subordinate people on the basis of sexual orientation. Heteronormativity
Heteronormativity privileges _____. Heterosexuals
_____: intense fear, or even hatred, of “homosexuals” Homophobia
There are more _____ among women than there are between women and men. differences
Sometimes our identities are in _____, even if both represent “minority” groups. For example, minority race communities can discriminate against minority sexuality groups. conflict
America is (still) a very _____ nation. We tend to live in _____ communities and sometimes this can blind us to the realities of other people’s experiences within society. segregated; homogenous
Our _____ _____ is a particular place in society that we come from and is made up of our various status memberships– our gender, our race, or ethnicity, etc. social location
A large part of how we understand the world is the result of our _____, our view outward from our social location. standpoint
That differences exist between people is not problematic within itself. A problem arises when differences result in _____ and when we try to pretend that the differences don’t really exist or _____ in the first place, when they clearly do. inequality; matter
Beyond not having as much social power, many “subordinate” status categories are actually discriminated against. For this reason, we say that American society _____ subordinate status categories. oppresses
If we accept that that different statuses are differentially valued in our culture, then we also have to accept that some people are unfairly _____ for their group membership. rewarded
We all have the capacity to be “the oppressor”. Even those of us who may be members of one or more minority groups are vulnerable to other forms of _____ and _____. prejudice and discrimination
You don’t always have to do something actively oppressive in order to benefit from your membership in a _____ status. privileged
Who said, “The true focus of revolutionary change is never merely the oppressive situations we seek to escape, but that piece of the oppressor which is planted deep with each of us”? Paulo Freire
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