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MCAT PT 6 FUPS

Stuff To Not Fuck Up On Again From Practice Test 6

TermDefinition
In A Lithium-Ion Battery, Electrons Flow From: The lithium anode to the iodine cathode
If A Cell Is Used To Power A Device, It Must Operate As A Voltaic Cell And Its Potential Must Be: Positive
Ca+2 Is Close To The Size Of Ba+2 Because They Are Both In The Same: Period
Average Acceleration Is Calculated As The: Change in velocity / change in time
A Ribozyme Is An RNA Molecule That Is Capable Of: Catalyzing reactions and lower the activation energy of reactions similar to the way enzymes do
RNA Has Phosphodiester Bonds In The: Ribose-phosphate "backbone"
Peptides Do Not Contain: Any phosphates or phosphodiester bonds
The Formation Of A Glycosidic Bond (Aka Formation Of An Acetal) Involves An Oxygen Of A Hydroxyl Group Acting As A Nucleophile Which: Attacks the anomeric carbon of a hemiacetal sugar such as glucose
With A Smaller Aperture, Diffraction Becomes: More pronounced
A Higher (A+T):(G+C) Ratio Means That There Are More: A-T pairs than G-C pairs
Wavelength Range For Yellow Light: 570-590 nm
Enzymes With "Oxidase", "Reductase", "Dehydrogenase", or "Monooxygenase" In Their Names Are Likely To Be Involved In: Redox reactions
An Adenosyltransferase Enzyme is Not Associated With: A redox reaction
NADH Does Not React With: O2
NAD+/NADH Will Only Under 2-Electron, Not: 1-electron transfers
FAD/FADH2 Reacts Very Easily With: O2
Calcium Can Bind To The δ Subunit of Phosphorylase B Kinase And: Activate it
Glycogen Phosphorylase Cannot Break Down: Cellulose
Because Glycine Lacks A β Carbon, This Means That Glycine Is The Only Amino Acid That: Does not exist as a β amino acid
Adding BaCl2 To Water Carbonic Acid And Water Forms: Barium carbonate, a white precipitate
Antacids Are Basic Compounds That: Neutralize acids
The Formula Of Sucrose (A Disaccharide) Is: C12H22O11
Polypeptides Are Named: N' to C'
Anhydrides Form When Two Carboxylate Groups: Combine And Release A Water Molecule
Anhydride Formation Requires Two Carboxylate Groups Coming: Close enough together for a reaction to take place
Potential Energy Of A Spring, U = 1/2kx^2
Methanol Reacting With Phenylalanine To Form A Methyl Ester In The Absence Of Acid Is An Example Of: Nucleophilic acyl substitution, specifically esterification
Alcohols Are: Weak nucleophiles
Refraction Only Occurs When Light Enters At An Angle: Relative To The Normal
If Light Enters Normal To The Boundary Of A Medium, The Angle Of Incidence Is: Zero
The Wavelength Of Purple Light Is: 400-430 nm
Light With A Wavelength Of 200 nm Is: UV light
The Reaction Of P-Aminophenol And Acetic Anhydride React To Form Acetaminophen Is An Ex Of: A nucleophilic substitution
The Conductivity Of An Electrolyte Is Proportional To The: Total concentration of ions in the solution
The Negatively Charged Oxygen Atoms In Ozone Are The Richest In: Electrons and the most likely to donate electrons
A Compound That Has An Unpaired Electron Is Considered To Be: Paramagnetic
A Compound That Does Not Have Any Unpaired Electrons Is Considered To Be: Diamagnetic
Hypoventilation Means That Breathing Rate Will Be Lowered And Less: CO2 than normal will be exhaled
The Idea That Hydrostatic Pressure Is Assumed To Be Linear Only Applies To Liquids Whose: Densities are essentially constant
The Hydrostatic Pressure Curve Should Not Be Linear For gases Because: Their density is a function of the force applied to them and that gases are compressible
The Fourth Oxygen Molecule That Binds To A Hemoglobin Molecule Binds More Easily Than The First Because: Hemoglobin consists of 4 subunits, each of which can bind one oxygen molecule
Allosteric Effects That Cause Changes In The Conformations For The Remaining Molecules Of Hemoglobin Make It Easier For: The remaining subunits to bind oxygen
The carbonyl carbon Of the Acetyl Chloride Is More Electrophilic Than: That of acetic acid
Esterification Is An: Addition-elimination reaction
The Basic Structure Of A Fatty Acid Is A: Carboxylic acid group attached to a long hydrocarbon chain
The Characterization Of The Fatty Acid As Saturated Or Unsaturated Comes From: The hydrocarbon chain
There There Are Double Bonds In A Fatty Acid, Then: The fatty acid is saturated
The Reduction Of A Carboxylic Acid Or An Aldehyde Or Ketone Will Yield: An alcohol
Saturated And Unsaturated Fatty Acids In A Triacylglycerol Do Not Have: Carboxylic acid groups
A Trans Fat Is A Fat With: Double bonds, and is unsaturated
Hydrogenating A Saturated Fat Doesn't Do Anything Because: It doesn't have any double bonds
Saturated Fats Are The Product Of A Complete Reduction Of: Unsaturated fats
Unsaturated Fats At Room Temperature Are: In their liquid form
B-lactam Antibiotics Are Highly Reactive Because Of Their: Ring strain
The Fusion Of The B-lactam Ring To A Second Ring Forces The Geometry Of The Nitrogen To Be Pyramidal Rathn Than Trigonal Planar Which: Confers a higher degree of instability
The Preferred Geometry For An Sp2-Hybridized Atom Is: Trigonal planar
Having More Resonance Structures WOuld Make A Compound: More stable and less reactive
Depolarization Makes The Inside Of The Neuron Axon More: Positively charged
Na+ Ions Are: The most common extracellular ions
Outward Flow Of K+ Ions Causes: Repolarization
Electrical Conductivity Is Related To The Ability Of A Material To: Conduct an electric current
Materials With Free Electrons Are: Better conductors
In Graphite, Each Carbon Is: Covalently bonded to three other atoms which allows for a sea of free electrons that can conduct electricity due to carbon being tetrahedral
Note About The Final Purpose Of A CARS Passage: It could be the final sentence of a passage, but it can also be the final sentence of a single paragraph that is in the introduction (like a thesis)
A Typical Immune Response Involves The Proliferation Of Antibodies That Are: Specific for and attack foreign matter known as antigens
Ribose Is Generated By: The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
A Mutation Which Alters A Single Enzyme Is Unlikely To Be Signficant As A Result Of Other Pathways And Genetic Redundancy Called: A polygenic inheritance pattern
Rapid Transport Of Acidic Chyme To The Small Intestine Will Cause A: Drop in PH
Pepsin Activity Occurs Predominantly In: The stomach
Acidic chyme In The Duodenum Is Expected To Cause: Feedback inhibition of HCL secretion
When The Brain Utilizes Ketone Bodies Instead Of Glucose, The Same Ketone Bodies Are: Converted into acetyl coenzyme A
Ketones Are Not Isomers Of: Glucose
NADH and FADH2 Are: Electron carriers
Ketone Bodies Are Only Used In: Aerobic respiration
PCR Uses What Polymer Exclusively: Taq polymerase
PCR Uses A Standard Set Of Temperatures That Are: Independent of sequence
PCR Uses A Large Excess Of: Each nucleotide
Low Blood Insulin Levels Are A Symptom Of: Pancreatic problem
Vitamin B12 Absorption Involves The: Stomach And The Terminal Ileum Of The Small Intestine
Gastric Ulcers Result From A Failure To: Neutralize acid from the stomach
The Pancreas Produces: Bicarbonate to neutralize gastric acid
The Rate Of Diffusion Of Electrolytes: Directly related to the concentration gradient
Nodes Of Ranvier Allows For Saltatory Conduction, Which Is Act Of Allowing: The action potential of a neuron to jump from one node of Ranvier to another
Synaptic Transmission Is Mediated By: Neurotransmitter vesicles
Neurotransmitter Migration Is Mediated By: The cytoskeleton
If A Normal Male Is A Child Of A Mother With A Disease, Then The Disease Is: Autosomal recessive
Traits That Are Incompletely Dominant Result In: An intermediate phenotype in heterozygous individuals
The Primary Function Of Melanin In The Skin And Eyes Is To: Absorb UV radiation which can damage cell structures, promote free radical reactions, and alter DNA
Viruses Consist Of A: Nucleic acid and a protein capsid
Viruses Can Also Be Encapsulated By: A lipoprotein or glycoprotein coat
Viruses Can Transport Enzymes Necessary For: Replication
An RNA Virus Is Unlikely To Carry: Transcription factors
Single Stranded Nucleic Acids Are: Vulnerable to attack
The Most Effective Way For Viral RNA To Evade Host Degradation Is To: Assume a 3D conformation in a very tight hairpin loop or lariat where the RNA binds to itself
Sodium's Value for Z In The Nernst Equation Is = +1
The Standard Cell Potential For A Concentration Is Always: 0 v
The Thin Limb Of The Ascending Loop Of Henle Is Characterized By: Impermeability to water
Electrophoresis Is A Separation Of: Proteins based on size
SDS Is Used In Electrophoresis To Make Sure That All Proteins Have: A uniform size-to-charge ratio so that their motion is based purely on their size
Isoelectric Focusing Depends On The Charges On: The surface of a protein
The Location Of A Codon Where An Amino Acid Will Be Swapped Out Is In: The 3rd nucleotide of the codon
Unlike Taq DNA Polymerase In The PCR Reaction, E.Coli DNA Polymerase Is Not: Stable at high temperatures
Fatty Acid Breakdown And Inhibition Of Liver Glucose Uptake Are Functions Of: Growth hormone
TSH Regulates: The thyroid gland
Prolactin Regulates: Milk synthesis
Protein Synthesis Is Associated With The Ribosomes Of: The rough ER
The Smooth ER Is A Site Of: Carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis
Active Transport Is Only Used To Move Substances: Against a concentration gradient
Ligases Join: Two molecules together
Kinases Add: Phosphate groups
Oxidoreductases Carry out: Redox reactions
A Protein Technique That Is Used To Isolate One Specific Protein Among Hundreds Is Called: ELISA, or Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Centrifugation Only Works On The Basis Of: Molecular mass
Southern Blotting Is Used To: Isolate DNA
Red Blood Cells Are Formed Primarily In: The bone marrow
Red Blood Cells Are Destroyed In: The spleen
The Best Substitute For Valine Is: Alanine
Phenylalanine Competes WIth Other Large Neutral Amino Acids (LNAAs) For: Transport into the brain
HIgh Levels of Phenylalanine Contribute To: Brain damage
If An Amino Acid Is Deemed Essential, This Means That It Is: Necessary for normal protein synthesis
ATP Hydrolysis Is Needed To Drive Reactions that Are: Non-spontaneous, which are those with positive values for Non-spontaneous, which are those with positive values for ΔG0
Cytokinesis Is The Separation Of The Cytoplasm That: Completes the process of mitosis
The Eye Is Derived From This Germ Layer: Ectoderm
The Stomach Is Derived From This Germ Layer: Endoderm
When A Fatty Acid Undergoes β oxidation, It Produces A Molecule Of: Acetyl coA, which means that: The molecule loses two carbon atoms
Environmental Justice Is The Fair Treatment And Meaningful Involvement Of All People Regardless Of: Race, color, nationality, or income with respect to environmental laws and policies
Cutlural Objects And Their Associated Stories And Significance Fit Into The Category Of: Material culture
Culturals Inventions Such As Money That REquire Acceptance Of The Entire Culture To Fully Function Or Exist Is Called: Symbolic culture
Aggression Is Defined As Physical Or Verbal Behavior Intended To: Hurt or destroy whether reactively or proactively
Weber's Law States That The Difference Threshold Is: A constant proportion of the stimulus
Signal Detection Theory States That: Two signals must be significantly different from one another in order to be picked up as separate events
The Unconditioned Response Is The One That Is: Automatically triggered by a stimulus
Latent Inhibition Is The Idea That A Familiar Stimulus: Takes longer to acquire meaning than an unfamiliar stimulus
A Mental Shortcut Based On Expectation And Experience Is Called: Heuristics
A Result That Is Due To A Study Participant Is Due To: Self-fulfilling prophecy
Comparative Pessimism Would Likely Arise In Someone Who Believes He Or She Is: Worse off or has a higher risk than others
When Changes In Behavior Occur To Conform To The Group Norms, This Is Considered An Effect Of: Peer pressure
A Ritual Is A Formalized Ceremony That Usually Involves: Specific material objects, symbolism, and additional mandates on acceptable behavior
When An Individual Discriminates Against A Group Of People For Any Reason, It Is Called: Individual discrimination
Monozygotic Twins Share: The same genetic material
Created by: SamB91