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Clinical Nutrition 2

Lipid Midterm questions

What is a triglyceride? 3 FA + glycerol
What is the main source of body fat? Triglyceride
How are fatty acids transported and stored in the body? Triglycerides
What is a phospholipid? 2 FA+ phosphate + glycerol
What is the function of a phospholipid? Cell membrane structure, high amount in the brain
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds that fix the shape of the molecule, saturated FAs do not
How do fatty acids differ from each other? 1. Length of the hydrocarbon tail 2. Degree of unsaturation (double bonds) 3. Position of the double bonds in the chain
Know the nomenclature of fatty acids and explain the notation Number of Carbons, Number of double bonds, Position of the first double bond
Name the functions of fatty acids in the body. 1. Insulation 2. Absorb shock- heel pad 3. Energy, calories, and heat 4. Protection from famine 5. Cell membrane structure-phospholipids 6. Protagladin production- 'inflammation'
How does cholesterol affect membrane fluidity? It maintains ridgidity
Why don't triglycerides cross cell membrandes? Too big, needs to be broken down before it can be transported -Need lipase to break it down
What kinds of fatty acids does the body make? Saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and cholesterol
Essential fatty acids may reduces the risk of what diseases? 1. Cardiovascular disease 2. Alzheimer's disease 3. Diabetes
What increases delta-5 desaturase activity? 1. Insulin 2. Blood glucose
What decreases delta-5 desaturase activity? 1. EPA 2. Turmeric
What are the pros and cons of the omega-6/omega-3 ratio? Useful concept, but difficult to measure.
What are food sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)? Found in evening primrose oil, borage oil and black current oil (plant fats)
What is the role of arachidonic acid in inflammation? Pro-inflammatory mediator in tissue
What are three factors that increase lipid oxidation? 1. Light 2. Oxygen 3. Heat
List the various fatty acids from most stable to least stable. Trans? Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated
What determines the stability of fatty acids? Number of double bonds (increase # of double bonds-->more susceptible to oxidation-->decrease stability)
List 3 dangers of trans fats. 1. Lowers HDL cholesterol 2. Increases LDL cholesterol 3. Increases insulin levels
How can you change fat consumption to decrease inflammation? Balance omega-3's and omega-6's. Eat less animal fats
Why are dietary fats difficult to classify? The are a mixture of various fatty acids
What is the difference between plant fats and animal fats? They come from different sources. Types of fats in animal products depend on what they eat.
Why is fish oil so popular? High omega-3 content, easy to obtain, big money-maker!
Does fish oil prevent cardiovascular disease? Why or why not? probably not-look at your case study(because their diet isn’t changing, if they added fish in their diet for the omegas then maybe it would be beneficial)
What are characteristics of high quality fatty acids? Fresh, unrefined oils, mechanically pressed(cold expeller without chemicals), tastes like the seed it came from, no oxygen or light during processing, storing, or transportation
What antioxidant nutrient prevent against fat oxidation? Vitamins E and C, CoQ-10, lipoic acid, and glutathione/cysteine
What is the critical enzyme in lipid metabolism and where are variations of this enzyme found? Lipase Lipoprotein lipase is located extracellularly (blood stream and ECF) and Hormone sensitive lipase is located intracellular
What influences lipolysis? Epinephrine stimulates, insulin inhibits, hormone-sensitive lipase stimulates so that fatty acids can be released for energy
What happens when the government makes dietary recommendations? The US government is a big pusher in the industry
What may be the best predictor of cardiovascular risk? Particle size and apoprotein levels
What are the risk factors for hypercholesterolemia? 1. low fiber intake 2. high sugar intake 3. caffeine 4. stress 5. lack of exercise 6. smoking 7. high fat diet
Does Fish Oil prevent cardiovascular disease… Not really...especially for primary prevention, but may have some effects for secondary prevention strategies.
Created by: Rebecca_11