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MCAT PT 2 FUPS

Stuff To Not Fuck Up On Again From Practice Test 2

TermDefinition
Beta Particles Have: A negative charge, are electrons, and are deflected by a magnetic field because they are charged
Gamma Rays Are High Energy Photons That: Lack any charge, and will not be deflected in a magnetic field or an electric field because they are uncharged
Pressure = Force / area
Current In Series Must Be: Equal
Like Charges: Repel each other
Continuity Equation: Q = V1*A1 = V2*A2
Benedict's Reagent Is A Common Reagent Used To: Test for reducing sugars aka sugars that contain hemiacetal or hemiketal groups
Only Sugars With Free Carbonyl Groups Like Hemiacetals Or Hemiketals Can Undergo: Oxidation and reduce Benedict's reagent to produce a positive result for the test
Sucrose Doesn't Give A Positive Result For Benedict's Test Because: It doesn't possess any free carbonyl groups
Specific Rotation = Observed rotation / conc. of solution * length of tube
Number Of Hydroxyl Group That Attacks The Carbonyl Carbon In The Hemiketal Reaction To Form The Ring Structure Determines: The size of the ring
Maltose Is A Dissaccharide That Is Made Up Of: 2 glucose subunits, 1 of which is a glucoside, and the other is in hemiacetal form which can mutarotate
Mutarotation Is Characterized By: An equilibrium between alpha and beta anomers, which involves a conversion between the two forms that proceeds through an open chain form that possess a free carbonyl group that can reduce Benedict's reagent
Pyran Corresponds To: A 6-membered ring
Furan Corresponds To: A 5-membered ring
Prefix For A Glycoside: "-Osyl"
Once An Enzyme Is Saturated With Substrate, The Reaction Utilizes: All possible enzymes at a given time which then has no significant effect
Steps To Form A Disaccharides (First) The -OH group on one of the sugars gets protonated to form an H20 group
Steps To Form A Disaccharides (Second) The nucleophilic -OH group from the other sugar attacks the protonated sugar
Steps To Form A Disaccharides (Third) The H20 Group on the protonated sugar leaves, and simultaneously, a bond is formed between the two sugar molecules
Steps To Form A Disaccharides (Fourth) The extra proton leaves, which results in a neutral dissaccharide product
Solubility Of Non-Gaseous Solutes Increases With: Increasing temperature
Solubility Of Gaseous Solutes Decreases With: Increasing temperature
La Chatelier's Principle States That A Product's Concentration Will Increase If: Reactant is added to the system
Alpha-Hydrogens Are Relatively Acidic Because Of: Resonance stabilization
The Acidity Of Hydrogens Will Be Increased By Proximity To: Electron withdrawing groups
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives DO NOT Undergo: Nucleophilic addition reactions like the aldol condensation
Oxidation Of A Secondary Alcohol Will Lead To The: Formation of a ketone
Anomers, Which Are Cyclic Hemiacetal Forms Of Monosaccharides With Different Configurations Around The First Carbon, Are: Easily broken in solution
Mutarotation Involves The Initial Opening And Closing Of: A chain of anomers that results in a mix of anomers
Both Phospholipids And Triglycerides Contain: A glycerol backbone
In Phospholipids, The Glycerol Is Bonded Phosphoric Acid Through: A phosphate ester and to two fatty acids through ester bonds
In Triglycerides, The Glycerol Is Bonded To: Three fatty acids through ester bonds
Both Triglycerides And Phospholipids Have: Three sp2-hybridized carbons (carbonyl carbons)
The Phosphate Group In Phospholipids Can: Hydrogen bond
Triglycerides Do Not Have Any: Functional groups that can hydrogen bond
Efficiency = (load * load distance) / (effort * effort distance)
Error In Load % = Absolute error / actual load
As Actual Load Increases, Percent Error: Increases
Salt Bridges Are A Necessary Component Of Galvanic Cells That: Release anions and cations into the separate half cells to counteract the buildup of charge created by the current flow
When A Material Is Undergoing A Phase Change, It Will Always Be Accompanies By A Change In: Density and entropy
Because The Circulatory System Exists In A Closed State, The Volumetric Flow Rate Of Blood: Must be constant throughout
Cross-Sectional Area Is Inversely Proportional To: Fluid velocity
Acid Anhydrides Are Formed Through The Formation Of Water From: Two molecules of carboxylic acid
Acid Anhydrides Are Highly: Reactive compounds
Acid Anhydrides Are Named After: The carboxylic acid that was used as a reactant
Chymotrypsin Preferentially Cleaves Peptide Bonds Next To: Large hydrophobic amino acids
Aromatic Acids Are; Large and hydrophobic
The Esophagus Is A Conduit Through Which: A food bolus passes from the pharynx to the stomach
Competitive Inhibitors Bind Reversibly To: The active site
Alanine Contains Two: Polarizable functional groups
Amino Acids With Acidic R Groups (Glutamic Acid And Aspartic Acid) Have: 3 polarizable functional groups
Amino Acids With Basic R Groups (Histidine, Arginine, And Lysine) Have: Three polarizable functional groups
Regions Of Hydrophobicity On A Hydropathy Graph Are Shown By Regions Of The graph Where: Y-values change from negative to positive, which indicates that they favor the opposite side of the membrane
A Decrease In Heart Rate Would: Decrease the perfusion of tissues with blood and decrease oxygen delivery
Active mRNA Transcripts Have A: Very short lifespan
Triase Phosphate Isomerase Is Involved In: Glycolysis
Glycolysis Is A Component Of Both: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Monosomy In Any Chromosome Would Result From: Maternal nondisjunction, which results in gene loss
Most Inactive Enzymes Have Modifications Of The Active Site, Which Is Part Of The: Tertiary structure
In Order For Proto-Oncogene To Transform A Cell, Oncoproteins Must Be Produced From: Proto-oncogene transcripts
If There Are Complementary Nucleic Acid Sequences Present: Proto-oncogene mRNA will base pair with the nucleic acids before it can be translated and produce oncoproteins
The Binding Of A Compound To A Cell Receptor Which Triggers A Series Of Reactions Is Called: Signal transduction
Homozygous Dom X Homozygous Rec. = 100% heterozygotes, 100% phenotype
Heterozygous Dom. X Homozygous Rec. = 50% phenotype
A DNA Double-Strand Break If Left Unrepaired Would Affect Both Chromatids In A Pair Of Sister Chromatids In: G1
The Spindle Apparatus Interacts With The Kinetochore Fibers In Order To Align The Chromosomes On The Equatorial Plate During: Metaphase
Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Is Based On The Assumption that: There is one active site capable of binding substrate
Isomers That Do Not Have The Same Connectivity (ex: Placement Of A Carbonyl Group In Different Positions) Constitutes: Structural isomers / constitutional isomers
Polyuria, A Symptom Of Diabetes Type II, Is Characterized By: Excess water excretion
The Ascending Limb Of The Loop Of Henle Is: Impermeable to water
Type I Diabetes Involves The Destruction Of What Cells In The Pancreas: Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
Functions Of the Spinal Cord Include: Pain and monosynaptic reflexes (ex: Deep tendon reflex)
Totipotency Is The Ability Of A Cell To Develop: Into any mature cell type
Autoradiography Utilizes Radioactive Molecules To Trace And Identify: Cell structures and localize biochemical activity
Upon Penetration Of The Egg, The Sperm Mitochondria: Fall apart and are not replicated when divisions begin
Transcription Of A Specific Gene Will Always Result In: The same primary transcript (pre-mRNA)
Confabulation, the Production Of A Distorted Memory Without The Intention To Deceive Is A Common Symptom Of: Korsakoff's Syndrome
Working Memory Is Involved In: Reasoning and comprehension
Fundamental Attribution Error Describes The Tendency To: Overvalue dispositional or personality-based causes for behavior while undervaluing the role of external circumstances
The Humanist Perspective's Focus Is: Self-actualization and helping patients become more complete and fulfilled individuals
Ethical Research Guidelines Place Great Emphasis On Informed Consent Prior: To the commencement of a study if there is potential for emotional or physical harm to the participants in the study
Individuals With Low Self-Esteem Are More Likely To: Engage in risky behaviors
False Alarm Is When A Research Participant Provides: A false answer to a stimulus that is not present
Weber's Law: JND (Just Noticeable Difference) = Change / Original
Perseverance Dictates That When People Are Presented With Information Of Varying Opinion: People are more likely to believe information that confirms their opinion and discount evidence which refutes it
The Way To Increase The Statistical Significance Of A Result Is To: Increase the number of data points in the study
Symbolic Interactionists Seek To Study: The effects of social constructs on individuals and how those constructs affect the roles individuals take in society
Dizziness And Difficulty Hearing Strongly Suggests: An inner ear problem involving the semicircular canals
Systemic Desensitization Is: The use of increasingly proximal stimuli to gradually reduce the fear response in an individual
The Amygdala Is The Brain Structure Responsible For: The fear response
A Patient Who Seeks Constant Attention From Medical Staff And Becomes Irritable When Ignored Most Likely Has: Borderline Personality Disorder
Sexual Dimorphism Refers To: The degree to which males and females resemble each other.
A Species With Low Sexual Dimorphism Contains Males And Females That: Look mostly identical
Korle's Law States That Time And Distance Are: Directly related
Conflict Theory Involves: Anger or dissatisfaction based on inequality
A Lack Of Consequence In A Research Study Shows: A lack of construct validity
Reference Group Refers To: The group of people that a person compares him or herself to when evaluating him or herself
A Pessimist Assumes That Bad Things That Happen To Him Are: Due to his own fault
Major Depressive Disorder Requires The Presence Of A Certain Subset Of Symptoms Over A Period Of At Least: 2 weeks
Gate Theory Of Pain Explains How: Input to nociceptors in the arm is preferentially transmitted to the brain by the spinal cord over other stimuli
Created by: SamB91