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BTEC Unit 1 Skeletal

Skeletal system structure key terms

A pivot joint allows Only allows rotation
A hinge joint allows.. movement in one plane only, flexion and extension
A condyloid (or ellipsoid) joint allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction.
A ball and socket joint allows the widest range of movement, flexion and extension/abduction and adduction/rotation
A saddle joint allows similar to condyloid joint; flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction are allowed
A gliding joint allows a little gliding movement in all directions. Occur where moving bones are flat.
Long bone It is longer than it is wide and contains bone marrow. Both ends of the bone are covered in hyaline cartilage to help protect the bone and aid shock absorption
Short bone They provide support and stability with little movement. Contain large amounts of bone marrow
Flat bone Flat plates of bone with the main function of providing protection to the body’s vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment. This is where the highest number of red blood cells are formed in flat bones
Sesamoid bone Imbedded in a tendon. They are usually present in a tendon where it passes over a joint which helps to protect the tendon
Irregular bones They have a non-uniform shape. They have a thin layer of compact bone
Function of skeletal system-Blood production In the centre of certain bones there is bones marrow this is responsible for the formation of red blood cells for oxygen transport
Function of skeletal system- Protection It protects vital organs and tissues such as the skull surrounding the brain with hard bones
Function of skeletal system-Attachment for muscles Muscles need to be attached to bones and the skeleton provides the surface for this to happen they are attached via tendons
Function of skeletal system- Mineral storage The body needs stores of certain minerals such as calcium and phosphorous and the bones provide this
Function of skeletal system- Support This gives the body shape and a framework for the organs
Axial skeleton The part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head, trunk and vertebrate
Appendicular skeleton The appendicular skeleton iconsists on the bones of the limbs- arms and legs
Fixed joint are also known as immovable joints, they do not move they are joined together by fibrosis tissue an example is your skull.
Slightly moveable joints They allow a little movement , they are found between the vertebrae.
Freely moveable joints They allow the greatest amount of movement also known as synovial joints
Ligaments These hold the bones of the joint together and are made up of strong collagen fibres
Articular cartilage This covers the ends of the bones that meet at a synovial joint. It is smooth and allows the bones to move over one another without grating against each other.
Joint capsule connective tissue taht surrounds and encases the bones
Joint cavity filled with synovial fluid to aid movement and lubricate the joint
Synovial membrane lines the joint caspusle and secrets synovial fluid
Bursa fluid filled sacks that prevents friction allowing free movement and reduces risk of injury
Synovial Fluid provides lubrication for the joint and nourishment for the cartilage; this reduces the friction (used as a shock absorber) and increases the range of movement at the joint
Created by: Tina Dean
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