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Embryology

Northwestern Health Sciences Chiropractic Embryo Test 1 T2

QuestionAnswer
Incidence of birth defects 6/100 50% pregnancies unplanned
What disturbs pregnancy Teratogens
How many weeks is Gestation 38 weeks
Fertilization to birth is called Gestation
How long is the pre-embryonic period Fertilization to 3 weeks
How many cells and germ layers are there in the pre-embryonic period 1 cell 3 germ layers
When is it classified as the Embryonic Period and what occurs 4th to 8th week, Germ layers make all the organs and tissues
When is it classified as the fetal period 9th week to birth
Birth defects are most likely to occur from what week to what week before risk goes down and what is the riskiest week Fertilization to week 5. Week 5 is the riskiest before risk starts to decrease
What are the periods of development of an embryo Pre-embryonic, Embryonic , Fetal
How many chromosomes in the human genome 46 chomosomes (2N), 22 pairs of homologous autosomes, 1 pair of sex chromosomes
What are the two major periods of the cell cycle Interphase and mitosis
What are the phases of interphase and what happens during each s-phase - synthesis, G1 phase - gap before synthesis, G2 phase - gap after synthesis,
Cell division is called Mitosis
What are the phases of Mitosis and what are the results Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis Results are 2 identical daughter cells with 2n DNA
What happens during prophase Nuclear envelope breaks down
What happens during Metaphase Chromosomes line up in the middle (equatorial) in the cell
What happens during Anaphase (wittich said this was the most important phase) Separation of the chromatids
What happens during Telophase Chromatids are pulled to each side of the cell
What happens during Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm, this is different in males and females and doesn't always happen.
What happens in Meiosis Only occurs in the formation of gametes, series of 2 divisions but only one is preceded by synthesis, follows the G2 phase
Meiosis has 6 phases but only 3 were highlighted, what are they Zygotene, Pachytene, Diplotene
What happens during the Zygotene phase of prophase I The chromosomes, 1 from mom 1 from dad, pair up
What happens during the Pachytene phase of prophase 1 Recombination occurs, little pieces of the chromosomes are traded to give genetic diversity
What happens during the Diplotene phase of prophase I The newly recombined chromosomes start to pull apart but they don't finish
What happens during Meiosis II and what are the results Same as mitosis except it is not preceded by an S-phase 1N DNA where each one is unique
What is the cause of the most common chromosomal disorders Non-disjunction- chromosomes do not split apart Failure of the chromatids to separate or of the homologous pairs to separate
When do chromosomal disorders occur Mitosis, Meiosis I, Meiosis II
45 instead of 46 chromosomes Missing an Autosome (lethal), Missing a sex chromosome (missing Y is lethal) (only have 1X=turners syndrome) Monosomy
47 instead of 46 chromosomes Extra autosomes (most are lethal), Trisomy Trisomy 21= Downs Syndrome Trisomy 22= Rare and rarely survivable
Process by which stable and observable difference arise- due to persistent and preferential transcription and synthesis of proteins Differentiation
Period of time preceding differentiation when the "Fate is locked in but not expressed" Determination
Triggering the determined cells to differentiate Induction
What is a normal process controlled by the genome which must occur to keep problems from happening Cell Death
In week 3 __________ differentiate in the wall of the yolk sac and migrate to the primitive gonad Primordial germ cells
Development of spermatozoa formation from spermatogonia Spermatogenesis
Primordial germ cells remain quiescent until puberty when they differentiate into ___________ Spermatogonia
What processes are involved in Spermatogenesis Mitosis, Meiosis, differentiation and morphologic changes
What is the process of Spermatogenesis Spermatogonia------>Primary Spermatocytes----> Seconday Spermatocytes-----> Spermatids-----> Spermatozoa
What are the structures of Spermatozoa Tail, Acrosome, Nucleus
Formation of the primary oocyte is called OOgenesis
Primordial germ cells migrate to the _____________ Primitive Ovary
When mitosis occurs, this gives rise to the _________ Primary Oocyte
The primary oocyte enters the 1st meiotic division but is arrested in the ___________ phase of prophase I Diplotene
Primordial follicles Composed of one primary oocyte and a layer of follicular cells, Embedded in the stroma of the ovary, About 2 million formed by birth
Created by: Kcarder