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US History I (P1)

9th Grade Final

TermDefinition
Spanish Colonization Attacked, conquered, killed, tortured, and worked the Natives. The harshest treatment of the Natives by any of the European colonists.
British Colonization Attacked the Natives and took their land. They also traded with the Natives, but very rarely.
French Colonization Befriended the Natives and opened trade with them. Very good relations between the Natives and colonists.
Columbian Exchange Cultural and Biological exchange between the Old World and the New World.
Columbian Exchange Effect on New World Harmed more by it. Small pox decimated the area. The people died by the masses. Many large civilizations fell due to it. Suffered mightily due to the exchange.
Columbian Exchange Effect on OId World Gained a lot. The land received many new great concepts and objects. Greatly benefited from the exchange.
Christopher Columbus Explorer who was the first European to discover the Americas. Enslaved many Natives, and forced them to work for him. He killed them if he wanted to. Died thinking he had reached India.
Encomienda System System that gave Spaniards control over the land they conquered.
Virginia Company British joint stock company created to help establish settlements on the coast of North America.
Jamestown Second British colonization attempt. Struggled at first due to bad conditions, laziness, disease, and more. Populated by young men looking for money.
Indentured Servants Poor white people from Europe would work for a set amount of time, and then be able to go live on their own. Most servants died before they were freed.
Why the North was settled for religious reasons Pilgrims came for religious freedom. Puritans came to Massachusetts to purify the Church of England.
Why the South was settled for economic reasons John Rolfe brought tobacco to Jamestown. Jamestown was populated by young, working men. Founding of Georgia to protect southern plantations. Africans brought to southern colonies to do work whites could not.
Salem Witch Trials Got everyone in the area all riled up. People had convulsions said to be due to Witchcraft. Everyone was accusing everyone. Women received more attention then ever.
Bacon's Rebellion Led by Nathaniel Bacon, poor white farmers rebelled against Virginia and other colonies hoping for voting rights. They attacked Indians and burned down Jamestown. Bacon dies, but all white men can now vote.
Great Awakening Less people were joining churches. It was too hard to join the church, and it took forever. Religion in desperate need of a spark is revived during this time. Becoming a church member becomes much easier and quicker.
Puritans English protestants who wanted to purify the Church of England. Known for their strict rules and emphasis on education and family. Mainly in Massachusetts.
Pilgrims English families seeking religious freedom. Came to the New World for a better life. Struggled at first, but thrived after befriending the Natives.
House of Burgesses The first legislative system in North America. Located in Virginia. Made laws.
Mercantilism led to... The subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country. Turned into a nation whose sole purpose was to supply Britain.
Massachusetts Required each community of 50 or more families to provide a teacher of reading and writing. Everyone needed to be able to read the bible.
Navigation Acts Forced the colonies to only trade on British ships. Enumerated goods were to only be sent to England (rice, sugar, etc.). Someone is always buying, buy only selling to one option. Smuggling happened very often to other countries.
Ben Franklin The most famous person in the colonies before the revolution. Invented many things including electricity, lightning rods, and other new inventions.
Quakers Moved closest to equal gender rights. Mostly located in Middle colonies. Peaceful.
Backcountry Zero focus on education. Came to colonies for a better life and living conditions.
Virginia Cavaliers In the Chesapeake. Hard working. Short living. Married early. Anglican.
Colonies after French-Indian War Britain tightened their grip on the colonies. Created boundaries for the colonists to stay within, and began to demand lots from the colonists.
Revolution Occurred Because "No taxation without representation." The Quartering, Stamp, Sugar, and Coercive Acts. The colonists were tired of the tyrannical rule from Britain.
Revolution Advantages for the Colonists French alliance. High morale and will to fight. No central base. Defense.
Biggest reason for Colonists Revolution victory French military and financial aid.
Social Change after Revolution Farmers were poor and in debt. Rich and elite were still the highest and most powerful. Women and blacks had no rights.
French-Indian War War between Britain and France. Winner got the others territory. France could have received control of the colonies. Took 7 years. Angers the colonists during and afterwards.
Sugar Act Increased tax on sugar and molasses. Very unpopular in the colonies, but the colonists could live with it.
Stamp Act A British tax increasing the price of simple objects such as paper, licenses, newspapers, and even playing cards. Unlike the Sugar Act, the colonists were furious. Lots of Boycotting, and people were determined to change things.
Declaratory Act Britain repealed the Stamp Act and lessened the Sugar Act.
Townshend Acts A series of acts passed in the colonies by Parliament. The acts were to help raise revenue from taxes to pay salaries of colonial governors. Taxes were on tea, lead, paper, and glass.
Boston Massacre Colonists taunted British soldiers on their duty. More people and soldiers came. Insults, snowballs, and ice were being thrown at the soldiers. The British felt trapped and opened fire. 5 colonists killed.
Tea Act The East India Company was struggling, so Britain decided to force sell tea to the colonies. The colonies middlemen skipped, and many colonies didn’t like that.
Boston Tea Party When the East India Company tea arrived in the Boston Harbor, patriots dressed as indians boarded the ships and threw all of the tea into the harbor. Britain was enraged.
Coercive or Intolerable Acts Series of laws passed after the Boston Tea Party. Created as a punishment in Massachusetts for what the Patriots had done. The laws took away self governing rights and other basic rights. The colonists responded with resistance.
Loyalists (Tories) versus patriots (Whigs) Loyalists believed that the Revolution was bad. They sided with the British. Patriots wanted independence from Britain. They were not afraid to unfriend the British. They were against the British.
Treaty of Paris (1783) America recognized as free. Boundaries to the Mississippi. Ability to fish at Newfoundland. Private debts were to be paid to Britain. Loyalist were supposed to get their land back, but not all did. Florida was Spain property.
Articles of Confederation couldn't... Tax, raise an army, print currency, and get involved in state issues.
Hamilton makes the 1st two political parties Implied powers vs. Enumerated powers. The BUS was widely argued about.
US Neutrality Struggles during Napoleon Era Neutrality Proclamation of 1793. US continued signing treaties with Britain. The XYZ Affair caused France to be upset with the US.
Articles of Confederation The first US Constitution. The US was a loose Union of States. The States had to create their own Constitutions, and that would be the law. Failed, and is considered one of the worst Constitutions ever.
Land Ordinance Divided land into townships. Each township was 6 square miles. People could buy a square in the township.
Northwest Ordinance Law that said when the population of a territory grew to a certain amount, the territory could apply for statehood. Banned slavery in these territories.
James Madison Helped ratify the Constitution by writing the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. Later referred to as the "Father of the Constitution." Attended the Annapolis Convention.
3/5 Compromise When voting, only 3/5 of black slaves' votes were recorded. South wanted no slaves to have rights. The North wanted them to fully count.
Federalist Papers Documents written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton meant to convince people to ratify the Constitution. Helped big time.
Bill of Rights Anti-Federalists bargained to have this added onto the Constitution. It gives and defines the protected rights of each citizens.
Anti-Federalists Wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation, and shut down the Constitution. Wanted states' rights to be strong enough to limit the central government.
Federalists Wanted to ratify the Constitution. Believed in a strong and regulating Federal Government. In the end they win, and they become one of the first two political parties.
Alexander Hamilton Famous for his policies. He wanted to pay of national debt through tariffs on imports and exercise taxes on spirits and coffee. Biggest success was creating the BUS. Also created a way to pay back war veterans.
Checks and Balances Neither of the three branches of government is more powerful than the other two.
The BUS The Bank of the US. A national bank that was made by Hamilton to help the national debt.
Alien and Sedition Acts Alien: 14 years to become a citizen. A domestic policy. Sedition: No newspapers were allowed that mocked the president (Adams).
Democratic-Republicans Party that took the Anti-Federalists spot. Led by Thomas Jefferson. Believed in a strict reading of the Constitution.
Created by: 15D