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Supreme Court Cases

U.S. History

TermDefinition
Marbury v. Madison (1803) Established the supreme courts right of Judicial Review (right to determine the constitutionality of laws).
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Established the "Supremacy Clause" - the Constitution and federal laws overrule state laws when the two conflict. Also supported the use of Elastic Clause to expand federal power.
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Upheld the "separate but equal" doctrine. Said that the law did not conflict with the 13th or 14th amendments.
Civil Rights Cases (1883) Ruled that neither Congress nor the Supreme Court has the power to deal with private acts of discrimination.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) U.S. Supreme Court case from 1896 that upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools, public transportation, restrooms, and restaurants.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Loncher v. New York (1905) Established that the Supreme Court has the power to oversee state regulations.
Muller v. Oregon (1908) Let stand an Oregon law that limited women to a 10 hour work day in laundries or factories in order to protect women's health.
Schenck v. United States (1919) Established limits on free speech. Rights are not protected if there is no "clear and present danger" to the nations security.
Koremastu v. United States (1944) Ruled that the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps during WWII was legal.
Engel v. Vitale (1962) Reinforced the separation between church and state; public schools cannot encourage school prayer or other religious practices.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966) Required that the accused be informed of their legal rights (remain silent, get an attorney, etc.). Evidence obtained without warning may not be used in the court.
Roe v. Wade (1973) Ruled that state laws which made abortion illegal are unconstitutional. Based on right to privacy.
Veronica School District v. Acton (1995) Ruled that a school's practice of testing athletes randomly for drug use is not an illegal search.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) Established that Congress can regulate interstate commerce. Supremacy - Federal over state
Wabash, St. Louis, & Pacific Railroad v. Illinois (1886) Supreme Court forbid any state to set rates on railroad traffic entering from or bound another state. Paved the way for the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commision.
Northern Securities Co. v. United States (1904) Congress (under the Commerce Clause) had authority to regulate any conspiracy to eliminate competition.
Created by: Blissful_Olive
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