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HES 403- Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
What metabolite changes the most relative to rest up to 90% VO2 max? Pi
Propranolol blocks CNS, beta adrenergic receptors on heart; slows heart rate
All exercise science research traces back to what? Harvard fatigue laboratory
Bergstrom needles muscle biopsy; limited invasiveness
1st law of thermodynamics energy is not created or destroyed
2nd law of thermodynamics concentration of energy always proceeds to increased entropy
It’s impossible to convert a given amount of ____ into a given amount of ___ heat; work
Free energy is measured in kJ/mol
Enthalpy is measured in joules
Entropy is measured in J/K
3 types of kinetic energy thermal, radiant, electrical
3 types of potential energy bond, chemical, electrical
what helps with hypernation? brown adipose tissue
DNP weight loss; uncoupler
Trauma RMR 8-10x normal
Child RMR 2x that of adults
Free energy change STPD of ATP hydrolysis -7.3 kcal/mol
Free energy change physiological of ATP hydrolysis -14 kcal/mol (average)
Free energy change CP->C +P -10.3 kcal/mol
BTPS body temperature/pressure, saturated
3 examples of high entropy water 0C, random letters, denatured protein
3 examples of low entropy ice 0C, words, native proteins
STP conditions 1M, pH 7.0, 0C
Where is glycerol phosphate used? triglyceride synthesis
3 stages of metabolism digestion/absortion/assimilation; degradation of acetyl coA, oxidation of acetyl coA to CO2 and H2O
PCr pathway enzyme creatine kinase
Muscle PCr rest vs fatigue 25 vs. 3
Muscle ATP rest vs fatigue 5-8 vs. 4-6 (stable)
Muscle Pi rest vs. fatigue 3 vs. 24
Change in AMP and Pi 90% VO2 max 700-800%
Biggest -> smallest change relative to rest metabolites Pi, AMP, ADP, CP, ATP
Glycolysis aka (2) lactic acid cycle ☹, Embden-Meyerhof
Pyruvate kinase regulation - acetyl coA, FA, ATP; + fructose 1,6 bisphosphate
PFK regulation -ATP, H+, citrate; +ADP
Mitochondria are actually a reticular network
What enzyme is 98% efficient? ATP synthase
3 isoforms of hexokinase brain= lowest Km, muscle=intermediate, liver=highest
allosteric = ___ sensing fuel (fast, equilibrium)
covalent= ____sensing hormone (more permanent)
Apollo 13 CO2 scrubbing unit (hypercapnia)
Mice died when 1/14 of air consumed, why? too much CO2, still a lot of O2 left
Percent O2 in the atmosphere 21%
RER vs RQ RQ taken at tissue, RER at lungs
RQ peaks at 1
RER peaks at about 1.2
BMR vs. RMR basal (minimum), resting (daily activity)
TEE total energy expenditure
REE resting energy expenditure (same as RMR)
AEE/ EEPA activity energy expenditure, energy expenditure physical activity
NEAT non-exercise activity thermogenesis
TEF/DIT thermic effect of feeding; diet induced thermogenesis
How does insulin affect REE? increases it
1 kcal=how many joules? 4.185
use of carbon-13 infused and traced to determine distribution/movement
use of doubly labeled water rate at which leaves body and how much energy expended
FQ food quotient; if in energy balance FQ=RQ
Oxygen consumption can increase >20x
Heat production can increase >20x
ATP demand can increase >100x
Why is glycogen branched so phosphorylase can work at each terminus (faster)
Regulation of glycogen breakdown GPCR pathway, phosphorylated=active
Net ATP glycolysis when breaking down glycogen 3 b/c starts at glucose 1-phosphate
What enzyme converts pyruvate to lactate? lactate dehydrogenase
3 major uses of lactate recycles NAD+, fuel for heart, gluconeogenic precursor
glucose 6 phosphatase breaks down G6P back to glucose; found in liver but NOT muscle
where is PDH located? mitochondria
where is LDH located? cytosol
lactic acid info pKa= 3.87; 100% deprotonated at 6.0
why did we think lactic acid existed? co-transporter; pH decreases as lactate increases
endurance exercise glycolysis enzymes 25% improvement
endurance exercise glycogen 2x storage
endurance exercise lactate clearance increased substantially
why is the mitochondrial inner membrane folded? to increase surface area
what are the mitochondrial IM folds called? christae
mitochondrial genes 37 total, 22 for tRNA
complex I 46 subunits, 39 come from the nucleus
monocarboxylic transporters both lactate and pyruvate
what happens if you eat right before exercise?
how many potential ATPs per turn? 12
cytosolic NADHs are “curve balls”
3 fates of cytosolic NADH ox phos, lactate, converted to FADH2
NADH made of niacin
FADH2 made of riboflavin
4 things that increase in response to endurance training glycogen storage, glycolytic enzymes, CAC enzymes, pyruvate/lactate transporters
product of de novo lipogenesis palmitate
pancreatic lipase breaks down diet triglycerides (then packaged into CM)
hormone sensitive lipase breaks down TG in adipose tissue
lipolysis stimulated by epinephrine and norepinephrine
how do fatty acids get inside mitochondria? fatty acyl co-A, through CPT I and II
energy cost of activation of TG -2 ATP
ATPs from beta oxidation 5x ((#C/2)-1)
How many more ATPs per each 2 carbons on FAs? 17
Lipid effects of endurance training (3) more transporters, more TG storage in muscle, more sensitive lipolysis
FAT fatty acid transporter
FABP fatty acid binding protein (transporter)
Relative %s of H2O and protein 70%, 15%
Anaplerosis amino acid; nitrogen removed, carbons to Kreb’s cycle
Protein synthesis diagrams must look at breakdown
Leucine oxidation vs. % VO2 max directly proportional w/ very little variability
Protein RDA 0.8g/kg/day
enzyme that coverts PEP to pyruvate pyruvate kinase
enzyme that converts pyruvate into acetyl co-A pyruvate dehydrogenase
Created by: melaniebeale