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Cold War

After World War Two ended, the United States and the Soviet Union were two "superpowers" with completely different political and economic systems. What did the difference between these two powers cause? It caused the Cold War that lasted almost to the 21st century.
Briefly explain the differences between the two economic and political systems operated by the two "superpowers", Russia (Soviet Union) and U.S. The S.U. was communist - state controlled all property and ec. activity. No opposing parties and was totalitarian. The U.S. was capitalist - private citizens control almost all ec. activity. Citizens vote on pres. and congress from competing parties.
Explain some of the reasons for the mistrust between Russia and the U.S. that developed during WWII. Stalin had been an ally of Hitler and only joined Allies after Hitler invaded the S.U. in June 1941. Stalin resented the Allies' delay of D-Day. The U.S. also kept the bomb (Manhattan Project) from Stalin.
What was the original purpose of the United Nations and how was it used by the "superpowers"? It was intended to promote peace, later the U.S. and the S.U. used the UN as a forum to spread their influence.
During Truman's term as vice-president what major program was he not informed of that would become a major influence on foreign policy during his administration as president? He was not included in the Manhattan Project (top policy decisions) and didn't know about the bomb.
At the Potsdam conference, the final WWII meeting, what policy in Poland and other Soviet occupied territories did the Soviets take that caused tensions to mount between the U.S. and the S.U.? The Soviets took away Poland's free elections which caused tensions to mount between the U.S. and the S.U.
Why did Truman feel it was important for the U.S. to have democracy and free trade across the globe? Truman felt is was important so they could keep growing as the economic leader of the world.
What motivation and justification did the S.U. have for controlling Eastern Europe? They were motivated because they felt it would stop future invasions from the west. They were justified because they had had such a devastating war on their soil (lots of civilian lives lost).
What were the Soviet satellite nations? They were Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland.
What were Truman's goals in establishing the policy of containment? His goals were to "baby the Soviets" and prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries.
What did the phrase stated by the Prime Minister of England Winston Churchill "iron curtain" represent? It was the division of Europe that divided it into 2 political regions.
What was the Truman Doctrine? It provided economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey, about $400 million.
Why was the Marshall Plan established and what was its purpose? It was established to provide aid to all European nations that needed it. Also established because of chaos in Western Europe with many in refugee camps.
What were the lasting effects of the Berlin airlift? It allowed West Berlin to survive and boosted American prestige around the world.
What was the purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO? It protected the 12 members so if any one got attacked the others would support it militarily.
After WWII what happened in Asia that became a major concern for the U.S.? The U.S. was concerned when China became a communist nation and Korea was split into communist north and a democratic south.
During WWII what leader did the U.S. support in China and approximately how much money was given by the U.S. in his support? The U.S. supported Chiang Kai-shek and gave about $3 billion in aid to support him.
Many U.S. were in support of Chiang Kai-shek, however, what was the view of Chiang's administration to U.S. officials who worked with Chiang? They thought it was inefficient and corrupt.
Why did many people of China support the Communist Mao Zedong? Because he worked to win peasant support (encouraged reading, giving food).
Provide details conveying the internal turmoil in China after the Japanese were defeated in WWII? The cooperation between the Nationalists and the Communists stopped, and civil war broke out.
Explain how Taiwan was created? The U,S, aid wasn't enough to save the Nationalists, so in May 1949, Chiang and his government fled to Taiwan.
WHy was the 38th parallel significant in Korea? It was the divide between Soviets and Americans creating two nations, on communist and one democratic.
After WWII the U.S. had reduced their armed forces in South Korea. How did the S.U. react to this condition in South Korea? On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces (S.U.) made a surprise attack on South Korea. This is now known as the Korean War.
During the Korean War why did the Chinese not want the U.S. to cross the Yalu River and unite Korea into a single nation? The Chinese did not want the U.S. to cross the Yalu River because they wanted North Korea to be their buffer state to protect Manchuria. They also felt threatened by the American fleet on their coast.
Created by: Matti
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