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US history ch 16

The Cold War 1945-1960

satellite state independent nation under the control of a more powerful nation
Cold War worldwide rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union
iron curtain term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the border between the Soviet satellite states and Western Europe
Truman Doctrine President Truman's promise to help nations struggling against communist movements
George F. Kennan an American diplomat and a leading authority on the Soviet Union
containment policy of keeping communism contained within its existing borders
Marshall Plan foreign policy that offered economic aid to Western European countries after World War II
Berlin airlift program in which U.S. and British pilots flew supplies to West Berlin during Soviet blockade
North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) 1949; provided the military alliance to counter Soviet expansion
Warsaw Pact military alliance of the Soviet Union and its satellite states
Jiang Jieshi Chinese nationalist leader
Mao Zedong Chinese communist leader
38th parallel divided communist, Soviet controlled North Korea from non-communist South Korea
Douglas MacArthur World War II hero, devised plan to drive invaders from South Korea
limited war war fought to achieve only specific goals
South East Asia Treaty Organization(SEATO) defensive alliance aimed at preventing communist aggression in Asia
arms race contest in which nations compete to build more powerful weapons
mutually assured destruction policy in which the United States and the Soviet Union hoped to deter nuclear war by building up enough weapons to destroy one another
John Foster Dulles was an experienced diplomat who had helped organize the United Nations after World War II
massive retaliation policy of threatening to use massive force in response to aggression
brinkmanship belief that only by going to the brink of war could the United States protect itself against communist aggression
Nikita Khrushchev new head of the Soviet Union
nationalize placing something under government control
Suez Crisis attempt by France and Great Britain to seize control of the Suez Canal in 1956
Eisenhower Doctrine policy of President Eisenhower that stated that the United States would use force to help any nation threatened by communism
Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) U.S. intelligence-gathering organization
National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA) government agency that coordinates U.S. efforts in space
Red Scare fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life
Smith Act law that made it unlawful to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the United States government
House Un-American Activities Committee(HUAC) congressional committee that investigated possible subversive activities within the United States
Hollywood Ten group of movie writers, directors, and producers who refused to answer HUAC questions about communist ties
blacklist list of persons who were not hired because of suspected communist ties
Alger Hiss accused spy; educated at John Hopkins and Harvard Law
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg accused spies from the lower east side of Manhattan
Joseph R. McCarthy West Virginia senator, charged that the State Department was infested with communist agents
McCarthyism catchword for extreme, reckless charges
Created by: jnewmm