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US history ch 15

World War II 1941-1945

TermDefinition
Dwight Eisenhower general, commanded the Allied invasion of North Africa
George S. Patton Jr. innovative tank commander
unconditional surrender giving up completely without any concession
saturation bombing tactic of dropping massive amounts of bombs in order to inflict maximum damage
strategic bombing tactic of dropping bombs on key political and industrial targets
Tuskegee Airmen African American fighter squadron
Chester Nimitz commander of the United States Navy in the Pacific
Battle of Midway turning point in the war in the Pacific
A. Phillip Randolph Civil Rights activist that asserted that African Americans would no longer accept second-class citizenship
Executive Order 8802 World War II measure that assured fair hiring practices in any job funded by the government
Bracero Program brought laborers from Mexico to work on American farms
internment temporary imprisonment of members of a specific group
Korematsu v. United States 1944; Supreme Court upheld the government's wartime internment policy
442nd Regimental Combat Team all-Nisei; fought in the Italian campaign and became the most decorated military unit in American history
rationing government-controlled limits on the amount of certain goods that civilians could buy during wartime
Office of War Information(OWI) worked closely with the media to support the war effort
D-Day June 6, 1944; the Allies hit Germany in force
Battle of the Bulge December 1944, Hitler ordered a counterattack on Allied troops in Belgium, but it crippled Germany by using up reserves and demoralizing its troops
Harry S. Truman new president after FDR
island hopping World War II strategy that involved seizing selected Japanese-held islands in the Pacific while bypassing others
kamikaze Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed planes into American ships during World War II
Albert Einstein world famous scientist; signed a letter that alerted President Roosevelt about the need to proceed with atomic development
Manhattan Project codename of the project that developed the atomic bomb
J. Robert Oppenheimer physicist; one of the two primary leaders of the Manhattan Project
Holocaust Nazi attempt to kill all Jews under their control
anti-Semitism prejudice against Jews
Nuremberg Laws served as spiritual center of Nazism, denied German citizenship to Jews, banned marriage between Jews and non-Jews, and segregated Jews at every level of society
Kristallnacht "night of the broken glass"
genocide annihilation of a racial, political, or cultural group
concentration camp where members of specially designated groups were confined
death camp where prisoners were systematically exterminated
War Refugee Board U.S. government agency founded in 1944 to save Eastern European Jews
Yalta Conference 1945 strategy meeting between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
superpower powerful country that plays a dominant economic, political, and military role in the world
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT) 1948 treaty designed to expand world trade by reducing tariffs
United Nations an organization that would succeed where the League of Nations had failed
Universal Declaration of Human Rights document issued by the UN to promote basic human rights and freedoms
Geneva Convention international agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war
Nuremberg Trials laws enacted by Hitler that denied German citizenship to Jews
Created by: jnewmm