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Mizzou, Spring 2015, Biochem Final

codon the genetic cod is read in units of three consecutive nucleotides in mRNA called a ______
one each codon specifies ____ particular amino acid used to make the protein; this process is called translation
degenerate more than one, 3-base codon can code for the same amino acid
specific each codon specifies one amino acid
uninterrupted none of the bases are shared between consecutive codons and no non-coding bases appear in the base sequence (also known as non-overlapping)
universal except in a few instances, all organisms use the same code
AUG the start codon (and the amino acid methionine
stop codons UAA, UAG, and UGA
translation requires mRNA (contains the codons), tRNA(s) (contain the anticodon, the 3' end of tRNA carries a specific amino acid, & the ribosome
wobble the variation called _____ allows non-traditional base pairing in the wobble base (which is in the 5' position of the anticodon)
anticodon a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a tRNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in mRNA
3' the ____ end of tRNA carries a specific amino acid
degenerate many codons are _____ (or redundant) meaning that two or more codons may code for the same amino acid
tRNA 64 different codons do not yield 64 types of ____
32 only ___ tRNAs exist for all 64 codons
mutations ______ that alter the first and second codon positions will almost always alter the amino acid translated
amino acid activation the addition of an amino acid to the 3' end of each tRNA
amino acid activation requires: amino acids, tRNAs, ATP & Mg2+, & catalyzed by ammoniacal-tRNA synthetases
tRNA the specificity of matching ____ & amino acids is NOT solely determined by the anticodon sequence...other regions of tRNA are critical
prokaryotes _____ have a special modified form of methionine called N-formyl-methionine; it has its own tRNA (this is the N-terminal amino acid of this organism)
Shine Dalgarno the start signal of chain initiation in prokaryotes is preceded by a _____ _____ protein-rich leader segment 5'-GGAGGU-3', which usually lies about 10 nucleotides upstream of the AUG start signal & acts as a ribosomal binding site
peptidyl bond _____ _____ formation occurs between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the next amino acid
chain termination occurs at a stop codon in mRNA (UUA, UAG, or UGA); release factors RF-1, RF-2, or RF-3 to recognize the stop codons and promote dissociation of the ribosome from the mRNA
cytoplasm for eukaryotes, translation occurs in the _______
the same stop codons from translation are ________ for eukaryotes and prokaryotes
nucleus transcription, capping, polyadenylation, and splicing occur in eukaryotes and occur in the ______
folding time constraints & the complexity of the protein indicate that mere side chain interactions alone cannot account for _____ of proteins (in eukaryotes)
chaperones a group of proteins that facilitate the correct folding of new protein
disulfide new proteins are frequently pressed before they are biologically active (protease cleavage & _____ bond formation [2 cysteines to 1 cystine])
three proteins are in a dynamic state and on average, half are turned over every ____ days
lysosomes degradative pathways are restricted to sub cellular organelles such as ________
proteosomes degradative pathways are restricted to macromolecular structures called ________
Created by: oliviarees95



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