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Mizzou, Spring 2015, Biochem Final

transcription provides the intermediate between genetic information (DNA) and proteins
transcription the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
RNA polymerase transcription is catalyzed by ____ _____
5' to 3' RNA is synthesized _________
complementary the newly synthesized RNA is _________ to one of the DNA strands (called the anti-sense strand)
no is an RNA primer required for transcription?
mRNA in transcription, the synthesis of ______ by RNA polymerase occurs using a DNA template
promoter in the transcription of prokaryotes, the SIGMA subunit recognizes the _____, which contains the START POINT OF TRANSCRIPTION
Pribnow box is an essential part of a promoter site on DNA for transcription in bacteria (prokaryotes); contains the sequence TATAAT
RNA polymerase ____ _____ is semi-acurate (~1 error in 10,000bp); much higher error rate than DNA replication, but it's acceptable because mutations in RNA are not inherited
intrinsic termination inverted repeats in the DNA, these form a G:C rich HAIRPIN LOOP in the RNA which stalls RNA polymerase
Rho-dependent this causes dissociation of RNA polymerase from the DNA
response elements DNA sequences upstream of the promoter can control transcription
transcription factors response elements bind ______ ______ which are proteins that control initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase
enhancers response elements that increase transcription rates
silencers response elements that decrease transcription rate
operon a group of genes close together that code for proteins involved in a common metabolic pathway (prokaryotes ONLY)
nucleus transcription in eukaryotes occurs in the ______
three _____ RNA polymerase(s) is/are known for transcription in eukaryotes
one _____ RNA polymerase(s) is/are used for transcription in prokaryotes
1 RNA Polymerase __ is the precursors of most, but not all rRNAs
2 RNA Polymerase __ are mRNA precursors
3 RNA Polymerase __ are tRNAs, precursors of 5S rRNA, and a variety of other small RNAs involved in mRNA processing & protein transport
response elements enhancers that respond to certain metabolic factors
transcription factors response elements bind _____ ______ under certain cell conditions (such as cyclic-AMP response element, heat shock element, and metal response element)
helix turn helix this motif exactly fits across the major groove of B-DNA; both helices have glutamine or arisen which can H-bond with adenine and guanine
zinc finger ____ ____ proteins are able to wrap around the major groove of DNA
transcription tRNA, rRNA, & mRNA are all modified after ______ to give the functional form
post transcription modification of RNA trimming of leader and trailer sequences; addition of terminal sequences; modification of the structure of specific bases
tRNA the precursor of several ______s are frequently transcribed as one long polynucleotide sequence; trimming, addition of terminal sequences, and base modification all take place
rRNA ____ is methylated and trimmed to proper size; several _____s are generated from one long transcript
eukaryotes modifications of RNA in ______, the post-transcription processing of mRNA has 5' cap, Poly-A tail, and RNA splicing to remove non-coding RNA; all of these processes occur in the NUCLEUS
5' capping the ____ end of RNA with an N-7 methylated guanine that is bonded to the next residue by a 5' 5' triphosphate
3' ___ polyadenylation of mRNA (eukaryotes only); a few hundred adenine nucleotides are added to the ____ end of the mRNA before it leaves the nucleus; this protects the mRNA from nucleases and phosphatases
RNA splicing this occurs in eukaryotes only; the modification of pre-mRNA transcript where introns are removed and exons are joined
introns ______ are removed from mRNA via a process called splicing
exons final spliced mRNA contains only ______
polyadenylation adding a poly-A tail on the 3' end
5' the _____ end of an RNA strand is the cap end
eukaryotes transcription capping, polyadenylation, and splicing ONLY occur in this organism
nucleus transcription capping, polyadenylation, and splicing occur in the _____
Created by: oliviarees95