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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 10

TermDefinition
Interpersonal Attraction: Is what makes people like each other and is influenced by multiple factors
Physical Attractiveness, Which Is Increased With Symmetry And Proportions Close To: The Golden Ratio
Self-Disclosure: Includes sharing fears, thoughts, and goals with another person and being met with empathy and nonjudgment
Reciprocity: Factor of interpersonal attraction in which we like people who we think like us
Proximity: Factor of interpersonal attraction that involves being physically close to someone
Aggression: A physical, verbal, or nonverbal behavior with the intention to cause harm or increase social dominance
Attachment: Is an emotional bond to another person, and usually refers to the bond between a child and a caregiver.
Secure Attachment: Requires a consistent caregiver so the child is able to go out and explore knowing he or she has a secure base to return to; the child will show strong preference for the caregiver
Avoidant Attachment: Occurs when a caregiver has little or no response to a distressed, crying child; the child shows no preference for the caregiver compared to strangers
Ambivalent Attachment: Occurs when a caregiver has an inconsistent response to a child's distress, sometimes responding appropriately, sometimes neglectful; the child will become distressed when caregiver leaves and is ambivalent when they return.
Disorganized Attachment: Occurs when a caregiver is erratic or abusive; the child shows no clear pattern of behavior in response to the caregiver's absence or presence and may show repetitive behaviors
Social Support: The perception or reality that one is cared for by a social network
Emotional Support: Includes listening to, affirming, and empathizing with someone's feelings
Esteem Support: Affirms the qualities and skills of the person
Material Support: Is providing physical or monetary resources to aid a person
Informational Support: Is providing useful information to a person
Network Support: Is providing a sense of belonging to a person
Foraging: Is searching for an exploiting food resources
A Mating System: Describes the way in which a group is organized in terms of sexual behavior
Monogamy: Consists of exclusive mating relationships
Polygamy: Consists of one member of a sex having multiple exclusive relationships with members of the opposite sex, including polygyny (a male with multiple females) and polyandry (a female with multiple males)
Promiscuity: Allows a member of one sex to mate with any member of the opposite sex without exclusivity
Mate Choice, Or Intersexual Selection: Is the selection of a mate based on attraction and traits
Altruism: Is a form of helping behavior in which the person's intent is to benefit someone else at some cost to him- or herself
Game Theory: Attempts to explain decision-making between individuals as if they are participating in a game
Inclusive Fitness: Is a measure of an organism's success in the population. This is based on the number of offspring, success in supporting offspring, and the ability of the offspring to then support others
Social Perception Or Social Cognition: Is the way by which we generate impressions about people in our social environment. It contains a perceiver, their target, and the situation or social context of the scenario
Implicit Personality Theory: States that people make assumptions about how different types of people, their traits, and behavior are related
The Primacy Effect: Refers to when first impressions are more important than subsequent impressions
The Recency Effect: Is when the most recent information we have about an individual is most important in forming our impressions
A Reliance On Central Traits: Is the tendency to organize the perception of others based on traits and personal characteristics that matter to the perceiver
The Halo Effect: Is when judgments of an individual's character can be affected by the overall impression of the individual
The Just-World Hypothesis: Is the tendency of individuals to believe that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people.
Self-serving Bias: Refers to the fat that individuals will view their own successes as being on internal factors, while viewing failures as being based on external facotrs
Attribution Theory: Focuses on the tendency for individuals to infer the causes of other people's behavior
Dispositional (Internal): Causes are those that relate to the features of the person whose behavior is being considered
Situational (External): Causes are related to features of the surroundings or social context
Correspondent Inference Theory: Is used to describe attributions made by observing the intentional (especially unexpected) behaviors performed by another person
Fundamental Attribution Error: Is the bias toward making dispositional attributions rather than situational attributions in regard to the actions of others.
Attribute Substitution: Occurs when individuals must make judgments that are complex but instead substitute a simpler solution or heuristic
Stereotypes: Occur when attitudes and impressions are made based on limited and superficial information about a person or a group of individuals
Self-fulfilling Prophecy: The process in which stereotypes can lead to expectations of certain groups that create conditions that lead to the confirmation of the stereotype
Stereotype Threat: Is concern or anxiety about confirming a negative stereotype about one's social group
Prejudice: is defined as an irrational positive or negative attitude toward a person, group, or thing prior to an actual experience
Ethnocentrism: Refers to the practice of making judgments about other cultures based on the values and beliefs of one's own culture
An In-Group: Is a social group with which a person experiences a sense of belonging
An Out-Group: Refers to a social group with which an individual does not identify
Cultural Relativism: Refers to the recognition that social groups and cultures should be studied on their own terms
Discrimination: Is when prejudicial attitudes cause individuals of a particular group to be treated differently from others
Individual Discrimination: Refers to one person discriminating against a particular person or group
Institutional Discrimination: Refers to the discrimination against a particular person or group by an entire institution
Created by: SamB91