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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 9

TermDefinition
Status: Is a position in society used to classify individuals
Ascribed Status: Is involuntarily assigned to an individual based on race, ethnicity, gender, family background, etc
Achieved Status: Is voluntarily earned by an individual
Master Status: Is the status by which an individual is primarily identified
Role: Is a set of beliefs, values, and norms that define the expectations of a certain status in a social situation
Role Performance: Refers to carrying out the behaviors of a certain role
A Role Partner Is: Another individual who helps define a specific role within the relationship
A Role Set: Contains all of the different roles associated with a status
Role Conflict: Occurs when one has difficulty in satisfying the requirements of multiple roles simultaneously
Groups: Are made up of two or more individuals with similar characteristics that share a sense of unity
A Peer Group: Is a self-selected group formed around similar interests, ages, and statuses
A Family Group: Is the group into which an individual is born, adopted, or married
An In-Group: Is a group with which an individual identifies
An Out-Group: Is one with which an individual competes or opposes
A Reference Group: Is a group to which an individual compares him or herself
Primary Groups: Are those that contain strong, emotional bonds
Secondary Groups: Are often temporary and contain fewer emotional bonds and weaker bonds overall
Gemeinschaft (Community): Is a group unified by feelings of togetherness due to shared beliefs, ancestry, or geography
Gesellschaft (Society): Is a group unified by mutual self-interests in achieving a goal
Groupthink: Occurs when members begin to conform to another's views and ignore outside perspectives
A Network Is: An observable pattern of social relationships between individuals or groups
Organizations: Are bodies of people with a structure and culture designed to achieve specific goals. They exist outside of each individual's membership within the organization.
The Basic Model Of Social Situations: States that there are universal emotions, along with corresponding expressions, which can be understood across cultures
The Social Construction Model Of Social Situations: States that emotions are solely based on the situational context of social interactions
Display Rules: Are unspoken rules that govern the expression of emotion
A Cultural Syndrome: Is a shared set of beliefs, norms, values, and behaviors organized around a central theme, as is found among people sharing the same language and geography
Impression Management: Refers to the maintenance of a public image, which is accomplished through various strategies
Self Disclosure: Is sharing factual information
Managing Appearances: Refers to using props, appearance, emotional expression, or associations to create a positive image
Ingratiation: Is using flattery or conformity to win over someone else
Aligning Actions: Is the use of excuses to account for questionable behavior
Alter-casting: Is imposing an identity onto another person
The Dramaturgical Approach: Says that individuals create images of themselves in the same way that actors performs a role in front of an audience
The Front Stage: Is where the individual is seen by the audience and strives to preserve his desired image
The Back Stage: Is where the individual is not in front of an audience and is free to act outside of his desired image
Communication Includes: Both verbal and nonverbal elements
Verbal Communication: Is the conveyance of information through spoken, written, or signed words
Nonverbal Communication: Is the conveyance of information by means other than the use of words, such as body language, prosody, facial expressions, and gestures
Animal Communication: Takes place not only between nonhuman animals, but between humans and other animals as well. Animals use body language, rudimentary facial expressions, visual displays, scents, and vocalizations to communicate.
Created by: SamB91