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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 8

TermDefinition
Social Facilitation: Describes the tendency of people to perform at a different level based on the fact that others are around
Deindividuation: Is a loss of self-awareness in large groups, which can lead to drastic changes in behavior
The Bystander Effect: Describes the observation that when in a group, individuals are less likely to respond to to a person in need
Peer Pressure: Refers to the social influence placed on individuals by others they consider equals
Group Polarization: Is the tendency toward making decisions in a group that are more extreme than the thoughts of the individual group members
Groupthink: Is the tendency for groups to make decisions based on ideas and solutions that arise within the group without considering outside ideas.
Culture: Describes the beliefs, ideas, behaviors, actions, and characteristics of a group or society of people
Assimilation: Is the process by which a group or individual's culture begins to melt into another culture
Multiculturalism: Refers to the encouragement of multiple cultures within a community to enhance diversity
Subcultures: Refer to a group of people within a culture that distinguish themselves from the primary culture to which they belong
Socialization: The process of developing and spreading norms, customs, and beliefs
Norms: Are what determine the boundaries of acceptable behavior within society
Agents Of Socialization: Include family, peers, school, religious affiliation, and other groups that promote socialization
Stigma: The extreme disapproval or dislike of a person or group based on perceived differences from the rest of society.
Deviance: Refers to any violation of norms, rules, or expectations within a society
Conformity: Is changing beliefs or behaviors in order to fit into a group or society
Compliance: Occurs when individuals change their behavior based on the request of others. Methods of gaining compliance include the foot-in-the-door technique, lowball technique, and that's-not-all technique.
Obedience: Is a change in behavior based on a command from someone seen as an authority figure
Attitudes: Are tendencies toward expression of positive or negative feelings or evaluations of something
There Are: Affective, behavioral, and cognitive components to attitudes
The Functional Attitudes Theory: States that there are four functional areas of attitudes that serve individuals in life: knowledge, ego expression, adaptability, and ego defense
The Learning Theory: States that attitudes are developed through forms of learning: direct contact, direct interaction, direct instruction, and conditioning
The Elaboration Likelihood Model: States that attitudes are formed and changed through different routes of information processing based on the degree of elaboration (central route processing, peripheral route processing)
The Social Cognitive Theory: States that attitudes are formed through observation of behavior, personal factors, and environment
Created by: SamB91