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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 7

TermDefinition
The Biomedical Approach To Psychological Disorders: Takes into account only the physical and medical causes of a psychological disorder. Thus, treatments in this approach are of a biomedical nature
The Biopsychosocial Approach: Considers the relative contributions of biological, psychological, and social components to an individual's disorder. Treatments also fall into these three arenas.
The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders: Is used to diagnose psychological disorders. Its current version is DSM-5 (published May 2013). It categorizes mental disorders based on symptom patterns.
Schizophrenia: Is the prototypical disorder with psychosis as a feature. It contains positive and negative symptoms.
Positive Symptoms: Add something to behavior, cognition, or affect, and include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior
Negative Symptoms: Are the loss of something from behavior, cognition, or affect, and include disturbance of affect and avolition
Depressive Disorders: Include major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder
Major Depressive Disorder: Contains at least one major depressive episode
Pervasive Depressive Disorder: Is depressed for at least two years that does not meet criteria for major depressive disorder
Seasonal Affective Disorder: Is the colloquial name for major depressive disorder with seasonal onset, with depression occurring during winter months.
Bipolar And Related Disorders: Have manic and hypomanic episodes
Bipolar I Disorder: Contains at least one manic episode
Bipolar II Disorder: Contains at least one hypomanic episode and at least one major depressive episode
Cyclothymic Disorder: Contains hypomanic episodes with dysthymia
Anxiety Disorders: Include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, and panic disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Is a disproportionate and persistent worry about many different things for at least six months
Specific Phobias: Are irrational fears of specific objects or situations
Social Anxiety Disorder: Is anxiety due to social or performance situations
Agoraphobia: Is a fear of places or situations where it is hard for an individual to escape
Panic Disorder: Is marked by recurrent panic attacks: intense, overwhelming fear and sympathetic nervous system activity with no clear stimulus. It may lead to agoraphobia.
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Is characterized by obsessions (persistent, intrusive thoughts and impulses) and compulsions (repetitive tasks that relieve tension but cause significant impairment in a person's life)
Body Dysmorphic Disorder Is: Characterized by an unrealistic negative evaluation of one's appearance or a specific body part. The individual often takes extreme measures to correct the perceived imperfection.
Dissociative Disorders: Include dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder, and depersonalization/derealization disorder
Dissociative Amnesia: Is an inability to recall past experience without an underlying neurological disorder. In severe forms, it may involve dissociative fugue, a sudden change in location that may involve the assumption of a new identity
Dissociative Identity Disorder: The occurrence of two or more personalities that take control of a person's behavior
Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder: Involves feelings of detachment from the mind and body, or from the environment
Somatic Symptom And Related Disorders: Involve significant bodily symptoms
Somatic Symptom Disorder: Involves at least one somatic symptom, which may or may not be linked to an underlying medical condition, that causes disproportionate concern
Illness Anxiety Disorder: Is a preoccupation with thoughts about having, or coming down with a serious medical condition
Conversion Disorder: Involves unexplained symptoms affecting motor or sensory function and is associated with prior trauma
Personality Disorders (PD): Are patterns of inflexible, maladaptive behavior that cause distress or impaired functioning in at least two of the following: cognition, emotions, interpersonal functioning, or impulse control.
Personality Disorders Occur In Three Clusters: A: odd, eccentric, weird. B: Dramatic, emotional, erratic, wild. C: Anxious, fearful, worried.
Cluster A Of Personality Disorders Includes: Paranoid, schizotypal, and schizoid PDs.
Cluster B Of Personality Disorders Includes: Antisocial, borderline, hidstrionic, and narcissistic PDs.
Cluster C Of Personality Disorders Includes: Avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive PDs.
Paranoid PD: Involves a pervasive mistrust and suspicion of others
Schizotypal PD: Involves ideas of reference, magical thinking, and eccentricity
Schizoid PD: Involves detachment from social relationships and limited emotion
Antisocial PD: Involves a disregard for the rights of others
Borderline PD: Involves instability in relationships, mood, and self-image
Splitting: Is characteristic, as are recurrent suicide attempts
Histrionic PD: Involves constant attention-seeking behavior
Narcissistic PD: Involves a grandiose sense of self-importance and need for admiration
Avoidant PD: Involves extreme shyness and fear of rejection
Dependent PD: Involves a continuous need for reassurance
Obsessive-compulsive PD: Involves perfectionism, inflexibility, and preoccupation with rules
Schizophrenia Ma Be Associated With: Genetic factors, birth trauma, adolescent marijuana use, and family history. There are high levels of dopaminergic transmission.
Depression Is Accompanied By: High levels of glucocorticoids and low levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine
Bipolar Disorders Are Accompanied By: High levels of norepinephrine and serotonin. They are also highly heritable.
Alzheimer's Disease Is Associated With: Genetic factors, brain atrophy, decreases in acetylcholine, senile plaques of β-amyloid, and neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein
Parkinson's Disease Is Associated With: Bradykinesia, resting tremor, pill-rolling tremor, masklike facies, cogwheel rigidity, and a shuffling gait. There is decreased production of dopamine by cells in the substantia nigra.
Created by: SamB91