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MCAT Org. Chem Ch.12

Extraction: Combines two immiscible liquids, one of which easily dissolves the compound of interest
The Polar (Water) Layer Is Called: The aqueous phase, and dissolves compounds with hydrogen bonding or polarity
The Nonpolar Layer Is Called: The organic phase, which dissolves nonpolar compounds
Extraction Is Carried Out In: A separatory funnel. One phase is collected, and the solvent is then evaporated
Acid-base Properties Can Be Used To: Increase solubility
A Wash Is: The reverse of extraction, in which a small amount of solute that dissolves impurities is run over the compound of interest
Filtration: Isolates a solid (residue) from a liquid (filtrate)
Gravity Filtration Is: Used when the product of interest is in the filtrate. Hot solvent is used to maintain solubility.
Vacuum Filtration Is: Used when the product of interest is the solid. A vacuum is connected to the flask to pull the solvent through more quickly.
In Recrystallization: The product is dissolved in a minimum amount of hot solvent. If the impurities are more soluble, the crystals will reform while the flask cools, excluding the impurities.
Distillation: Separates liquids according to differences in their boiling points; the liquid with the lowest boiling point vaporizes first and is collected as the distillate
Simple Distillation: Can be used if the boiling points are under 150C and are at least 25C apart
Vacuum Distillation: Should be used if the boiling points are over 150C to prevent degradation of the product
Fractional Distillation: Should be used if the boiling points are less than 25C apart because it allows more refined separation of liquids by boiling point
All Forms Of Chromatography Use Two Phases: To separate compounds based on physical or chemical properties
The Stationary Phase Or Absorbent Is: Usually a polar solid
The Mobile Phase: Runs through the stationary phase and is usually a liquid or gas. This elutes the sample through the stationary phase.
Compounds With Higher Affinity For The Stationary Phase Have: Larger retardation factors and take longer to pass through, if at all; compounds with higher affinity for the mobile phase elute through more quickly.
The Process Of Compounds Getting Separated From Each Other During The Mobile Phase: Partitioning
Thin-layer And Paper Chromatography Are Used To: Identify a sample
The Stationary Phase Of Thin-layer And Paper Chromatography Is: A polar material, either silica, alumina, or paper
The Mobile Phase Of Thin-layer And Paper Chromatography: Is a nonpolar solvent, which climbs the card through capillary action
The Card Is Spotted And Developed: Rf values can be calculated and compared to reference values
Reverse-phase Chromatography Uses: A nonpolar card with a polar solvent
Column Chromatography Utilizes: Polarity, size, or affinity to separate compounds based on their physical or chemical properties
The Stationary Phase Of Column Chromatography Is: A column containing silica or alumina beads
The Mobile Phase Of Column Chromatography Is: A nonpolar solvent, which travels through the column by gravity
In Ion-exchange Chromatography: The beads are coated with charged substances to bind compounds with opposite charge
In Size-exclusion Chromatography: The beads have small pores which trap smaller compounds and allow larger compounds to travel through faster
In Affinity Chromatography: The column is made to have high affinity for a compound by coating the beads with a receptor or antibody to the compound
Gas Chromatography: Separates vaporizable compounds according to how well they adhere to the adsorbent in the column
The Stationary Phase Of Gas Chromatography: Is a coil of crushed metal or a polymer
The Mobile Phase Of Gas Chromatography Is: A nonreactive gas
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): Is similar to column chromatography but uses sophisticated computer-mediated solvent and temperature gradients.
HPLC Is USed If: The sample size is small or if forces such as capillary action will affect results. It was formerly called high-pressure liquid chromatography.
Created by: SamB91