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CH 13 & 14

CH 13 & 14 U.S. History Grade 8

QuestionAnswer
What immigrant group moved to the United States in the mid-1800s? European immigrants from Ireland, Germany, and the British Isles.
What were some reasons why people moved to the United States? Wanted to flee from economic troubles and political issues, and wanted jobs, freedom, and abundant land. Also, they wanted to escape starvation, poverty and political freedom.
What were the effects on immigration? Anti-immigrants form since they were worried about losing their jobs due to the mass amount of people. In addition, this causes Protestants and Catholics to clash with one another, so nativists, or Americans and others who opposed immigration, were born.
What party was founded that made it difficult for immigrants to hold office? The Know-Nothing Party
What were some reasons why US cities started to grow in the mid-1800s? Transportation Revolution (helped cities combine); Industrial Revolution (provided more jobs)
What effect did the growth of cities have on the US in the mid-1800s? Three-fourths of the country's manufacturing jobs was in Mid-Atlantic cities; the middle class (a social and economical level b/w the wealthy and poor) was born; made cities crowded and compact.
What were some problems in urban areas in the mid-1800s? Public transportation was overcrowded so people live near work; immigrants could only afford tenements which were poorly designed apartment buildings that housed a large number of people.
What were safety problems that arose in urban areas? There was no clean water or functional garbage disposal which spread disease and epidemics; crime and lack of public safety grew such as no fire protection, sanitation, etc.
What is transcendentalism? The belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things in life.
Who adopted transcendentalism and what did they believe? England writers and philosophers adopted this; believed people should depend on themselves and their own insights rather than outside authorities.
Who were three important transcendentalists? Ralph Waldo Emerson (popular writer/thinker); Margaret Fuller (edited the famous publication "The Dial"); Henry Davis Thoreau (advised simple living away from society and self-reliance, wrote "Walden")
When, where, and why did transcendentalists form a community? Brook Farm, MA in the 1840s; tried to make an utopian community, group of people who tried to form a perfect society--did not work out in the end
Who were famous writers and who were many poets during the period of American romanticism? Writers: Nathaniel Hawthorne (1800s, wrote historical fiction such as his books "The Scarlet Letter"); Herman Melville (wrote "Moby-Dick"); Poets: Edgar Allen Poe; Emily Dickinson; Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ("The Song of Hiawatha); Walt Whitman
What is an abolitionist? Someone who wants to end slavery
What did William Lloyd Garrison do? Published Abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator" in 1831 as well as "The American Anti-Slavery Society"
What did Angelina and Sarah Grimke do? white southern women who had slaves growing up they disagreed with parents on slavery. Angelina wrote "Appeal to the Christian Women of the South" in 1836. Both wrote "American Slavery As It Is" Which talked about important anti-slavery work
What did Fredrick Douglass do? After he escaped from Slavery, he gave lectures in 1841. He also published newspaper "North Star" he wrote several autobiographys
What did art show during the American Romanticism? Involved great interests in nature; individual expression; rejection of established rules
Where did the American romanticism begin? Europe
What did Sojourner Truth do? A Slave who claimed COD had called her to preach about slavery and women's rights
What was the Underground Railroad, and what did it do? Not an Actual Railroad but a network of people who arranged transportation and hiding places for fugitives or escaped slaves managed to achieve dramatic results
What did Harriet Tubman do? A Conductor on underground railroad. When she escaped slavery in 1849, she left behind her family. Said she would return and lead her whole family to freedom. Made 19 trips and lead her family and 300 others to freedom
What is the Seneca Falls Convention? 1st public meeting about women's rights held in the U.S. opened July 19, 1848 240 people attended
What is The Declaration of Sentimentals? A declaration made at the Seneca Falls Convention, detailed beliefs about social injustices toward women. 18 charges against men. Signed by 100 people. Made people want rights more
What did Elizabeth Cady Stanton do? Attended the world's Anti-Slavery convention, but wasn't allowed to participate, and had to sit in a different room. this angered her and her friend Lucretia Mott making them make the Seneca Falls Convention
What did Lucy Stone do? A well-known spokesperson for the Anti-Slavery Society. Was a gifted speaker
What did Susan B. Anthony do? She wanted equal pay for equal work, wanted to be able to do Men's professions. she formed a network to cover the entire state of New York. Collected 6000 signatures for petition. In 1860, married women got ownership of their wages and property.
What was the Temperance movement? It was an effort of reform that urged people to use self-discipline in order to cut down or even stop their excessive drinking.
Who were the people behind the Temperance movement? Social reformers (middle class; mostly women). There were also religious models, such as Minister Lyman Beecher who spoke of the evils of alcohol.
What were the effects of the Temperance movement? Many tried to cut down on their alcohol consumption in the name of God or religion.
Who began the movement for prison reform? Why? Dorothea Dix and Josiah Quincy. Dorothea visited prisons in 1841, and reported the unfair treatment and housing of orphans and mentally ill inmates in prisons.
What did Dorothea Dix's reports cause the Massachusetts legislature to do? The legislature doubled the budget for prisons, created facilities with professionally trained caretakers to house the mentally ill, and created houses of correction/reform schools for juveniles and orphans.
Who was the driving force behind education reform movements? Why? Horace Mann wanted children to all receive the same educational opportunities regardless of background. Only the wealthy were allowed private tutoring, and public schools only taught the bare minimum.
What was the common-school movement? Founded by Horace Mann- All children should be taught the same way regardless of background.
What did Horace Mann's efforts accomplish? MA expanded its education system, setting examples for other states.
Who were the people behind women's education reform? Why? Catharine Beecher and Emma Willard; they wanted women to have more education opportunities available to women.
Who helped expand education opportunities for people with disabilities? What did he/she do? Thomas Ballauder and Grindley Howe created opportunities for the blind and visually impaired to learn.
How many candidates were nominated for the Democratic party in 1852? 4
Who was finally elected to become a president candidate? Franklin Pierce
Who was nominated for the Whig party in 1852? William Henry Harrison and Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott
Who did Southerners not trust to be their president? Winfield Scott
Who became the new president in 1852? Franklin Pierce
What revived the slavery controversy? A proposal to build a railroad to the west coast. It also opened a new period of sectionalism.
Who is Stephan Douglas? A congressman from 1840 who supported the railroad. he thought the 1st step to a railroad is to organize the remainders of Louisiana territory to federal territory. Thought it should go through the free territory. South unhappy.
What is the Kansas-Nebraska Act? A plan in 1854 to divide the remainder of the Louisiana purchase into two territories--Kansas and Nebraska- allow people in territory to decide on slavery. Eliminated Missouri Compromise of 36* 30' line
When was the Kansas-Nebraska Act signed? When was the railroad signed? May 30,1855. And 1862
How many forms of government in Kansas? 2 in 1856
When did violence break out and what happened? 1856, 800 men rode to Lawrence to arrest leaders of pro-slavery, but leaders fled. Posse to anger out on Lawrence by setting fires.
What did John Brown do? He moved to Kansas in 1855 from New England. On May 24, 1856 his men killed 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas= Pottawatomie Massacre. Kansas collapsed into civil war 200 people killed
What happened on September 1856? Senator Charles Semner criticized pro-slavery and personally insulted Andrew Pickens Butler. Preston Brooks, a relative of Butler's on May 22, 1856 beat Sumner wit a cane. Brooks got a 300$ fine and Sumner couldn't return for 3yrs
What caused the debate about slavery in the US? The new land given to the US from the Mexican Cession. The north and south argues about whether the line drawn from the Missouri compromise should extend west into this territory.
Define Popular Sovereignty. Who is associated with this concept? The idea that political power belongs to the people. Senator Lewis Cass thought the people should decide whether or not to outlaw slavery in their territory.
What was the Wilmot Proviso? A proposal by David Wilmot, a northerner, that stated that "neither slavery or involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of the territory" (on the Mexican Cession) The south controlled senate rejected it.
Define Sectionalism. During this era, what caused this to occur? Sectionalism is favoring the interests of a section or region over the interests of the entire country. This is a result of the growing tension/divide between the north and the south.
What was the Free Soil party? A political party made up of antislavery northerners that supported the Wilmot Proviso.
What was the compromise of 1850? Pt 1 It was a compromise made by Henry Clay that made California a free state and divided the Mexican Cession into two territories- Utah and New Mexico. In these territories, slavery debates would be decided by popular sovereignty.
Compromise of 1850 Pt 2 It also outlawed slave trade in the district of Columbia and updated the fugitive slave act.
What was the Fugitive Slave act? It was an act that made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest those slaves in free areas. Accused african americans could not testify and faced huge fines.
Who was Anthony Burns and what happened to him? Anthony Burns was accused of being a runaway slave. Abolitionists tried to rescue him from Virginia in 1854, and ended up killing an opposing officer. Many outraged northerners joined the abolitionist cause.
What was Uncle Tom's Cabin and how did people react to it? UTC was an antislavery novel written in 1852. Many southerners were appalled, and northerners joined the antislavery cause. 2 million copies were sold, and it is said that the book basically sparked the civil war.
Who was Harriet Beecher Stowe? The author who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Which party formed which united against the spread of slavery? The Republican Party
Who is James Buchanan? Candidate the Democrats chose; from Pennsylvania; supporter of Kansas-Nebraska Act; former Secretary of State for Polk; new president when he won 14 out of the 15 slave states over Fremont
Who was Drew Scott? Slave of Dr. Emerson, an army surgeon; lived in St. Louis, Missouri
What's the Drew Scott decision? 1846; sued for freedom in Missouri state courts after Dr. Emerson died; argued he became free when living on free territory
What's the result of the Drew Scott decision and who counted the majority vote? Chief Justice Roger B. Taney concluded the founding fathers believed African Americans "had no rights which white man was bound to respect" so he was not considered a citizen; not citizen=no right to file suit
After the Drew Scott decision, who did not have the right to ban slavery in any federal territory? Congress
What was Lincoln's thoughts during the first Lincoln-Douglass debate and what was Douglass' reaction? Stressed idea of slavery in West and said African Americans had "natural rights" but weren't equal socially/politically; Douglass said he was brother to the Negroes and criticized his Republican wants as he wants all states free
What did Lincoln question Douglass at the second Lincoln-Douglass debate? Questioned him how Congress could not ban slavery in federal territory when the citizens could decide for themselves
What was Douglass' response to Lincoln's question in the second Lincoln-Douglass debate? Answered no matter what Supreme Court decided on slavery, people had the ability to include/exclude slavery so it can be anywhere witout local police regulations
Who won the Lincoln-Douglass debates? Stephen Douglass
What's the Freeport Doctrine? The notion that the police would enforce the voter's decision if slavery in the hands of citzens contradicted the Supreme Court's decision in the Drew Scott decision
What's John Brown's raid? October 16, 1859; he and men took over arsenal at Harper's Ferry, VR in hopes of starting slave rebellion; sent men to country side to get slaves to fight but didn't since they were afraid of consequences
What's the result of John Brown's raid? White southerners attacked them; 8 of his killed and 3 of southerners (others retreated to firehouse); morning, Robert E. Lee's troops stormed firehouse and captured them; all endorsed punishment-it was mostly a death penalty (what Brown received)
Who did the northern and southern Democrats chose as their candidate for the presidential election of 1860? Northerners-Senator Stephen Douglass; Southerners-current Vice President John C. Breckenridge of Kentucky who supported slavery in territories.
Which political party emerged during the presidential election of 1860 and what did they believe? Who was elected as their candidate? Constitutional Union Party; recognized "no political principles other than the Constitution of the country, Union of States, and enforcement of laws."; John Bell of Tennessee
Who did the Republicans chose as their candidate for the presidential election of 1860? Lincoln
Who won the election of 1860? Lincoln
What's secession? Formally withdrawing from the Union
What did southerners believe would happen if slave labor was removed? Believed their economy and way of life would be destoryed
What did the secessionists believed that made them think they could withdraw from the Union? Thought they could withdraw because, as pointed out, each original state had voluntarily joined the Union that ratified the Constitution; thought they could leave like how they entered
What was Lincoln's reaction toward the Southern secession? He said they could only remove in terms of breaking the law or starting a revolution.
What states are part of the Confederate States of America (aka the Confederacy)? Mississippi, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas
What did Confederate States of America constitution give and who's the president? Gave citizens rights to own slaves; Jefferson Davis of Mississippi
What did Senator John C. Crittenden of Kentucky propose? He proposed a series of Constitutional amendments that he believed would satisfy the South by protecting slavery; hoped country would avoid secession and a civil war
What did President Lincoln emphasize in his inaugural address? Said the U.S. belonged to the people because they can used their "constitutional right" to amend it and a their "revolutionary right" to overthrow it.; believed citizens had the power to change the government through majority consent
Created by: Jenna Weinhofer