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History Final

Racism and Sexism

QuestionAnswer
Missouri Compromise (1820) allowed MI to adopt a constitution w/o anti-slavery restrictions, & let ME be a free state, to maintain balance in Congress. And slavery would be prohibited in all remaining territory of the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36o30’.
Nullification crisis (1828-1833) SC opposed tariff of 1828, became a battle to uphold the supremacy of federal over state law. John C. Calhoun thought states should nullify federal laws. Jackson was like fuq u I'll get the army to collect $.
Andrew Jackson individual liberty, states' rights, and limited government, self-proclaimed champion of the “common man” won the election, which for the first time allocated states’ electoral votes on the basis of the popular vote
Indian removals (1830-1842) "treaties" to obtain native land & relocate them west of MS. Targeted Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole. 60K indians forcably removed from homes. Ignored supreme ct rulings.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) Marshall held that the Cherokees deserved federal protection but as “wards” of the federal government, not as citizens whose rights could be protected by the federal government.
Worcester v. Georgia (1832) Indian nations were "distinct, independent political communities retaining their original natural rights" They surrendered sovereign powers in treaties but remained a separate, sovereign nation with a legitimate title to its national territory.
Manifest Destiny white people deserve everyone’s land because God. first used to urge annexation of texas, afterward used as a justification for imperialism generally (European & Indian lands in west)
Texas: Independence and Annexation In 1845, the Republic of Texas voluntarily asked to become a part of the US, and the government of the US agreed to annex the nation. Mexican leaders had long warned the US that if it tried to make Texas a state, it would declare war.
James K. Polk (D, 1845-1849) James Knox Polk was the 11th President of the United States. Polk was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. He later lived in and represented Tennessee
Wilmot Proviso (1846) everyone supported, banned slavery from mexico-acquired territory. Passed in house, failed in senate. Opposition led by John C Calhoun of SC
Zachary Taylor (Whig, 1849-1850) Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850. Before his presidency, Taylor was a career officer in the United States Army, rising to the rank of major general
Antonio López de Santa Anna Mexican politician and general who greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government. Played a big part in fighting in annexation of texas and again in the mexican-american war
Race and the War with Mexico americans are fucking racist pieces of shit
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) confirmed the annexation of Texas and ceded California and present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah to the United States (as well as part of what would become the state of Colorado in 1876).
Abolitionsim/Abolitionists social justice movement of the pre-civil war era that advocated for the immediate emancipation of slaves and their incorporation into american society as equal citizens.
William Lloyd Garrison strong voice for abolitionist cause. Attacked southern slaveholders & criticized by southerners. Some of his ideas were rejected by abolitionists (like dissolving the Union). Also wrote thoughts on African colonization to convince people to not be morons
Angelina Grimké elite white woman who had worked for the abolitionist cause and gave scathing lectures on its evils. Was criticized for not being modest, but used their notoriety as a springboard to assert their own rights. Fought for equal pay for equal work.
Frederick Douglass helped create the drama of emancipation by publishing accounts of his life in bondage. Called knowledge the pathway from slavery to freedom. advocate for womens rights, advised Lincoln, and fought for liberated slaves’ voting rights.
The Declaration of Sentiments (1848) he principal author of the Declaration was Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who based it on the form of the United States Declaration of Independence. the "grand movement for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women."
Free Soil Party nominated van buren, were opponents of slavery in mexican acquired territory. Also ulterior motive – wanted land un-enslaved so white people could use it. most joined republican party
Compromise of 1850 regarded territories acquired after war with mexico cali was admitted as free, NM & Utah were pop sov, texas reduced borders, no slavery in capital, and fug slav act was increased
Fugitive Slave Act (1850) strengthened with police/military power to the outrage of northerners. Because people got $5 for siding with the slave and $10 for sending the slave away
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) created Kansas & Nebraska, repealed Missouri compromise (which banned slavery in that territory), allowed white dudes to decide based on popular sovereignty whether they’d allow slavery
“Popular Sovereignty” allowed settlers in a disputed territory to decide the slavery issue for themselves; program most closely associated with Senator Stephen A Douglas of Illinois
Know-Nothing Party wanted to purify American politics by being nativist and anti catholic. Millard filmore.
Republican Party (founded 1854) was anti slavery in new states (but not pro black people), and was founded in conservatism. But opposed xenophobia? Oh how the tables have turned.
Republican Party platforms in 1856 and 1860 Nominated James C Fremont in 1856 and Abraham Lincoln in 1860
“Bleeding Kansas” (1856) Anti slavers & pro slavers were on either side of Kansas and since it was up to popular sovereignty to decide which it would be, there were violent conflicts. Showed compromise was unlikely, was a proxy north vs south war.
Dred Scott Decision (1857) said that slaves were property and that people could bring their human property wherevs.
Harriet Jacobs Harriet Ann Jacobs was an African-American writer who escaped from slavery and was later freed. She became an abolitionist speaker and reformer
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) both senators tried to win Illinois legislature. Toured 7 districts mainly debating slavery. Large amount of turnout and press coverage. Douglass held his seat but lincoln made a national name for himself
Stephen A. Douglas Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician from Brandon, Vermont and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Ran against Lincoln and lost. believed in popular sovereignty
John Brown raid on Harpers Ferry, VA (present-day WV). abolitionist tried to start a slave revolt. Him and 20 dudes. Stopped by marines & Robert e lee. Asked Frederick douglass who was like this is a bad plan and harriet tubman who was like no im sick to join him.
Secession Commissioners (what their purpose and general arguments were) Southern governors sent them to other states to convince them to secede. Many of these commissioners were natives of the state to which they were appointed, and many of them were allowed to speak to the state legislature or state convention.
Abraham Lincoln and slavery was a free soil-er, but not an abolitionist. opposed the power of slaveholding states.
Stephen F. Hale was a lawyer, kentucky state legislator, lieutenant in mexican war, congressman, and led battle of gaines mill
Confederate States of America (list of the states which joined the CSA) SC, MS, FL, AB, GA, LA, TX (VA, AK, TN, NC)
Jefferson Davis Jefferson Finis Davis was an American soldier and politician who was the President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
George B. McClellan George Brinton McClellan was a major general during the American Civil War and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1864, who later served as Governor of New Jersey
Robert E. Lee old racist confederate man
Ulysses S. Grant (R, 1869-1877) old probably also racist union man
“Contrabands” term used to describe a new status for certain escaped slaves or those who affiliated with Union forces.
Sea Island Experiment a program begun during the American Civil War in which former slaves successfully worked on the land abandoned by plantation owners. In 1861 the Union liberated the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and their main harbor, Port Royal.
Emancipation Proclamation (1863) Lincoln issued it freeing slaves in areas under confederate control, allowed enrollment of black soldiers in the Union army
Homestead Act (1863) authorized congress to grant 160 acres of public land to a western settler, whi had to live on the land for 5 years to establish a title
Battle of Gettysburg (1863) fought in southern PA. confederate loss & loss at vicksburg marked military turning point in civil war
Ten-Percent Plan (1863) decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of the 1860 vote count from that state had taken an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by Emancipation.
New York Draft Riots (1863) violent disturbances in NYC resulting from working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. Southern elite convinced northern working class to kill poor blacks
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) radical republicans' plan for reconstruction that required loyalty oaths, abolition of slavery, repudiation of war debts, and denial of political rights to high ranking confederate officials. lincoln wouldn't sign it.
“War of Attrition” (1864) military strategy in which a belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and material.
Appomattox Courthouse (1865) site of surrender of confederate general lee to union general grant marking the end of the civil war
Thirteenth Amendment (1865) irrevocably abolished slavery throughout US
Special Field Order 15 (1865) confiscated a strip of coastline stretching from SC to FL. The order redistributed the roughly 400,000 acres of land to newly freed black families in forty-acre segments. Right after sherman's march to the sea
Andrew Johnson (R, 1865-1869) Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson became president as he was vice president at the time of President Abraham Lincoln's assassination.
“Black Codes” laws passed in southern states to restrict the rights of former slaves; to nullify the codes, congress passed the civil rights act of 1866 and the 14th amendment
Radical Republicans (1850s & 60s) advocated strong resistance to the expansion of slavery, opposition to compromise within the south in secession crisis, emancipation & arming of black soldiers during civil war, & political rights for blacks during reconstruction
Freedmen’s Bureau reconstruction agency established to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, healthcare, and land ownership
Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 along with the 14th amendment, guaranteed the rights of citizenship to former slaves
Sharecropping type of farm tenancy that developed after the Civil War in which land-less workers - often former slaves - farmed land in exchange for farm supplies and a share of the crop
Reconstruction Act (1867) established temporary military govts in 10 confederate states (except TN) & required that the states ratify the 14th amendment & permit freedmen to vote
Fourteenth Amendment (ratified in 1868) guaranteed rights of citizenship to former slaves, in words similar to those of the civil rights act of 1866
Fifteenth Amendment (ratified in 1870) prohibits states from discriminating in voting privleges on the basis of race
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. Penned the Declaration of Sentiments
Lucy Stone Lucy Stone was a prominent American orator, abolitionist, and suffragist, and a vocal advocate and organizer promoting rights for women. In 1847, Stone became the first woman from Massachusetts to earn a college degree
Lydia Maria Child abolitionist, women's rights activist, opponent of American expansionism, Indian rights activist, novelist, and journalist.
Hiram Revels He was elected as the first African American to serve in the United States Senate, and was the first African American to serve in the U.S. Congress. He represented Mississippi in the Senate in 1870 and 1871 during the Reconstruction era.
“Carpetbaggers” & “Scalawags” Carpetbaggers were northern emigrants who participated in the republican governments of the reconstruction south. Scalawags were southern white republicans, former unionists, who supported reconstruction governments
Ku Klux Klan terrorist organization founded in Pulaski, TN to keep former slaves from participating in politics (voting, holding office) during reconstruction
Enforcement Acts (1870 and 1871) three bills passed by the United States Congress. They were criminal codes which protected African-Americans' right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws.
Liberal Republicans was a political party that was organized to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant and his Radical Republican supporters in the presidential election of 1872.
Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) the first Supreme Court interpretation of the recent 14th Amendment to the Constitution. Privileges and immunities of citizenship of the US were to be protected by the Fourteenth Amendment not privileges and immunities of citizenship of a state.
United States v. Cruikshank (1876) The right to assembly was not intended to limit the powers of the State governments in respect to their own citizens & has no other effect than to restrict the powers of the national government. Meant freedmen were at the mercy of southern whites.
“Bargain of 1877” Republican Rutherford B. Hayes became president, and he, in turn, recognized Democratic control of the remaining Southern states and promised to end federal intervention in the South.
Rutherford B. Hayes (R, 1877-1881) 19th President of the United States. As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction, began the efforts that led to civil service reform, and attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction.
Millard Fillmore (Whig, 1850-53) 13th President of the United States, the last Whig president, and the last president not to be affiliated with either the Democratic or Republican parties
Franklin Pierce (D, 1853-1857) Franklin Pierce was the 14th President of the United States. Pierce was a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation.
James Buchanan (D, 1847-1861) James Buchanan, Jr. was the 15th President of the United States, serving immediately prior to the American Civil War, didn’t deal with it and fucked up
Abraham Lincoln (R, 1861-1865) elected with no support from the south, and they succeeded shortly before he took office
Total US population 4 million in 1790; 7.2 million in 1810; 17 million in 1840; 31.4 million in 1860; 50.1 million in 1880.
Total Slave Population 698,000 in 1790; 1.2 million in 1810; 2.5 million in 1830; 4 million in 1860
2. What did race have to do with the U.S. War with Mexico? (start with a general assessment and give one specific example) Reinforced the connection between race and Americanness, as well as between race and citizenship, initiating long-standing patterns of racial discrimination, tensions
3. In what ways did the War with Mexico set the stage for the Civil War? (start with a general assessment and give one specific example) making slavery (especially the expansion of slavery in newly acquired territories) a central political issue in the 1850s. Provided combat experience to a rising generation of officers who would play leading roles during the Civil War
4. Who were the Secession Commissioners? What were their main arguments? White supremacy. White people would be “degraded” to the status of black people, possibility of a race war, racial amalgamation
7. On the basis of two specific examples, respond to the following: “women were negligible historical actors”. Elizabeth Stanton (NY, 15-02) and Harriet Jacobs (NC, PA, Boston, Pub 61, 13-97)
8. On the basis of 2 examples, respond to the following: “focusing on the perspectives and actions of disenfranchised or victimized individuals and groups may seem charitable but it contributes almost nothing to our understanding of American history.” Frederick Douglass (Maryland & DC, Pub 45, 55, 81, 18-95) and Harriet Beecher Stowe (CT, Pub 52, 11-96)
20s Missouri Compromise (20)
20s-30s Nullification Crisis (28-33)
30s Cherokee Nation Vs GA (31), Worcester vs GA (32)
30s-40s Indian Removals (30-42)
40s Wilmot Proviso (46), Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (48), Declaration of Sentiments (48)
50s Compromise of 50, Fugitive Slave Act (50), KS-NB Act (54), GOP founding (54), Bleeding Kansas (56), Dred Scott (57), Lincoln-Douglas Debates (58)
early 60s Emancipation Proclamation (63), 10% plan (63), Homestead act (63), Gettysburg (63), Draft Riots (63), Wade Davis (64), War of Attrition (64)
late 60s Appomattox Courthouse (65), 13th Amendment (65), Field order 15 (65), Civil Rights Act (66), Reconstruction Act (67), 14th Amendment (68)
70s 15th Amendment (70), Enforcement Acts (70&71), Slaughterhouse cases (73), US vs Cruikshank (76), Bargain of 1877 (77)
Created by: haleyBUGoxox