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early age of athens

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TermDefinition
Herodotus "Father of History," first to write down accurate accounts of events of the Persian Wars in "The Histories," very biased though.
Thucydides "Father of Scientific History," due to his non-biased, factual accounts. Wrote the "The History of the Peleponisian War"
Pythagoras "Father of Numbers," his Pythagorean Theorem is still used today.
Pericles Famous military leader and politician leader of Athens during the Golden Age. Responsible for rebuilding the Parthenon and refining the Athenian democratic system.k
Socrates Famous Greek philosopher who taught his students to point out weaknesses in government and people's beliefs. His enemies tried him for impiety (lack of piety or reverence) and sentenced him to death. Created the Socratic Method of teaching that is still u
Plato Socrates' most famous student. Founded a world famous school that lasted far beyond his death.
Corinthian Architecture This style was often used in the Greek world, but also often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves. Was the oldest out of the three.
Ionic Architecture This style is thinner and more elegant than the Doric style. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). Was the second oldest out of the three
Doric Architecture Was the youngest out of the three.This style is sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily.
Why did the Greeks start colonies? They started colonies because some communities didn't have enough farmland to feed their peopleor get more resourses.
Decribe the steps the Greeks followed when they started a new coloney. First the asked the Greek gods if their efforts would be succesful. Second they gathered food and supplies. Third
Agora All of the Greek trading systems
Leonidas King of Sparta. He delayed the Spartan when they invaded so the Athenians could evacuate. Lead Greek army against the Persian army where the Greeks were outnumbered 50-1.
Themistocles General comander of the naval army of the Athenians.
Homer Homer, was the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey. He was thought to have been the first and greatest of the epic poets by the ancient Greeks
Tyranny A tyrant lead this type of government Advantages: needed sipport of the people at first, brought stability and made quick decisions. Disadvantages" 1 decision maker, controled through fear lost popularity and had no accountability.
Democracy The people made the decisions. Advantagres: Majority rule, accountability, social responsibilty and stability. Disadvantages: Majority rule, wrong choices and slow process.
Monarchy The Monarch or King made the decisions in a Monarchy. Advantages: Ease of transition, stability and quick decisions. Disadvantages: Only 1 family in charge, haves vs. have-nots and rash decisions.
Oligarchy The oligarch or the aristocats made the decisions. Advantages:2 or 3 heads are better than 1, checks and balences and stability. Disadvantages: Self-serving, rich gets richer and poor gets poorer, too many cooks in one kitchen and slow decisions.
Acropolis High fortified area of an ancient Greek city of Athens
Battle of Salamis Themistocles, the Greek naval leader, used the geography of the the land (mountains and rivers) to force the larger Persian army, whos leader was xerxes, to put a smaller number of their ships against the Greeks.
Xerxes Son of Darius, king of the Persians. Leader of the Persians at Thermopylae and Salamis. Was also at the Battle of Marathon.
Battle of Thermopylae Spartans were lead by Leonidas who used the natural geography- a narrow passway against the persians. Persians won but many Greeks cosidered it a victory. Leonidas and his spartans held off the Persians so the Greeks could get home.
Miltiades Greek leader. Used the natural geography to create a battle stratagy to beat the Persians even though they were outnumbered 3-1
Darius Persian leader and King of the Parsians at the battle of Marathon. Had the largest persian empire in history.
Persian Wars Ionian people rebelled against Persian taxation and were assisted by Athens. Persian King wanted revenge. Three battle followed: First Marathon, 2nd Thermopylae and 3rd Salamis.
Hellespont The waterway/straight that connected the Black sea to the Aegean sea (major trade route). Also where the siege of Troy was fought during the Trojan War. Also where Xerxes crossed using his bridge of oats during the persian Wars.
Phalanx Military stratagy/battle formation used by ancient Greeks characterized by overlapping shields and long spears.
Created by: imutone20
 

 



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