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MCAT Bio. Ch. 9

Intracellular Digestion Involves: The oxidation of glucose and fatty acids to make energy
Extracellular Digestion Occurs: In the lumen of the alimentary canal
Mechanical Digestion Physical breakdown of large food particles into smaller food particles
Chemical Digestion Enzymatic cleavage of chemical bonds such as the peptide bonds of proteins or the glycosidic bonds of starches
Pathway Of Digestive Tract: Oral cavity --> pharynx --> esophagus --> stomach --> small intestine --> large intestine --> rectum
Accessory Organs Of Digestion Are: Salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
Enteric Nervous System: Wall of the alimentary canal and controls peristalsis. Its activity is upregulated by the parasympathetic nervous system and downregulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
Hormones That Promote Thirst Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) and aldosterone
Hormones That Promote Hunger: Glucagon and ghrelin
Hormones That Promote Satiety: Leptin and cholecystokinin
In The Oral Cavity, Mastication Starts: The mechanical digestion of food while salivary amylase and lipase start the chemical digestion of food. Food is formed into a bolus and then swallowed.
Pharynx: Connects the mouth and posterior nasal cavity to the esophagus
Esophagus: Propels food to the stomach using peristalsis.
Food Enters The Stomach Through The: Lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
Four Parts Of The Stomach: Fundus, body, antrum, and pylorus
Stomach Has A Less And Greater Curvature And Is Thrown Into Folds Called: Rugae
Mucous Cells Produce: Bicarbonate-rich mucus to protect the stomach
Chief Cells Secrete: Pepsinogen, a protease activated by the acidic environment of the stomach
Parietal Cells Secrete: Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor which is needed for vitamin B12 absorption
G Cells Secrete: Gastrin, a peptide hormone that increases HCl secretion and gastric motility
Food Particles After Mechanical And Chemical Digestion Are Called: Chyme
Food Passes Into The Duodenum Through: The pyloric sphincter
Duodenum Is The: First part of the small intestine and is primarily involved in chemical digestion
Disaccharidases Are Brush-Border Enzymes That Break Down: Maltose, isomaltose, lactose, and sucrose into monosaccharides
Brush-Border Peptidases Include: Aminopeptidase and dipeptidases
Enteropeptidase Activates: Trypsinogen and procarboxypeptidases, initiating an activation capsule
Secretin Stimulates The Release Of: Pancreatic juices into the digestive tract and slows motility
Cholecystokinin Stimulates: Bile release from the gallbladder, release of pancreatic juices, and satiety
Acinar Cells In The Pancrease Produce: Pancreatic juices that contain bicarbonate, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic peptidases (trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, carboxypeptidases A and B), and pancreatic lipase
Liver Synthesizes Bile, Which: Can be stored in the gallbladder or secreted into the duodenum directly
Bile Emulsifies: Fats, which makes them soluble and increases their surface area
Liver Also Processes: Nutrients through glycogenesis and glycogenolysis, storage and mobilization of fats and gluconeogenesis. It also produces urea, detoxifies chemicals, activates or inactivates medications, produces bile, and synthesizes album and clotting factors.
The Gall Bladder: Stores and concentrates bile
Jejunum And Ileum Of Small Intestine Are Involved In: Absorption
The Small Intestine Is Lined With Villi, Which Are Covered With: Microvilli, which increases the surface area available for absorption
Villi Contain A Capillary Bed And A Lacteal, Which Is: A vessel of the lymphatic system
Water-Soluble Compounds Which Enter The Capillary Bed Include: Monosaccharides, amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, small fatty acids, and water
Fat-soluble Compounds Which Enter The Lacteal Include: Fats, cholesterol, and fat-soluble vitamins
Large Intestine Absorbs: Water and salts, which forms semisolid feces
Cecum Of The Large Intestine Is: An outpocketing that accepts fluid from the small intestine through the ileocecal valve and is the site of the appendix
The Colon Is Divided Into: Ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid portions
Rectum Stores: Feces which are then excreted through the anus
Gut Bacteria Produce: Vitamin K and Biotin (Vitamin B7)
Created by: SamB91
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