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MCAT Bio. Ch. 8

Innate Immunity (Nonspecific Immunity) Composed of defenses that are always active but cannot target a specific invader and cannot maintain immunologic memory
Adaptive Immunity (Specific Immunity) Composed of defenses that take time to activate, but that target a specific invalder and can maintain immunologic memory
Immune Cells Come From: The bone marrow
The Spleen And Lymph Nodes Are Sites Where: Immune responses can be mounted, and in which B-cells are activated
Thymus Is The Site Of: T-cell maturation
Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) Includes: The tonsils and adenoids
Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) Are Involved In: Immune defenses
The Skin Acts As: A physical barrier and secretes antimicrobial compounds like defensins
Mucus On Mucous Membranes: Trap pathogens. In the respiratory system, the mucus is propelled upward by cilia and can be swallowed or expelled.
Tears And Saliva Contain: Lysozyme, an antibacterial compound
The Stomach Produces Acid, Which: Kills most pathogens. Colonization of the gut helps prevent overgrowth by pathogenic bacteria through competition.
Complement System Can Punch Holes In: The cell walls of bacteria which makes them osmotically unstable
Interferons Are Given Off by Virally Infected Cells And Help: Prevent viral replication and dispersion to nearby cells
Macrophages Ingest: Pathogens and present them on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. They also secrete cytokines.
MHC Class I (MHC-I) Is Present In: All nucleated cells and displays endogenous antigen (proteins from within the cell) to cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ cells)
MHC Class II (MHC-II) Is Present In: Professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, dendritic cells, some B-cells, and certain activated epithelial cells) and displays exogenous antigen (protein from outside the cell) to helper T-cells (CD4+ cells)
Dendritic Cells Are: Antigen-presenting cells in the skin
Natural Killer Cells: Attack cells not presenting MHC molecules which includes virally infected cells and cancer cells
Granulocytes Include: Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Neutrophils Ingest: Bacteria, particularly opsonized bacteria (those marked with antibodies). They can follow bacteria using chemotaxis
Eosinophils Are Used In: Allergic reactions and invasive parasitic infections. They release histamine, which causes an inflammatory response
Basophils Are Used In: Allergic reactions
Mast Cells Are Related Cells To Basophils Found: In the skin
Humoral Immunity Is Centered On: Antibody production by plasma cells which are activated B-cells
Antibodies Target A Particular: Antigen. They contain two heavy chains and two light chains. They have a constant region and a variable region.
The Tip Of The Variable Region Of An Antibody Is: The antigen-binding region
When Activated, The Antigen-binding Region Undergoes: Hypermutation to improve the specificity of the antibody produced.
Cells May Be Given To Switch: Isotypes of antibody (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, IgA)
Circulating Antibodies Can Opsonize: Pathogens (which means to mark them for destruction), cause agglutination (clumping) into insoluble complexes that are ingested by phagocytes or neutralize pathogens
Cell-surface Antibodies Can Activate: Immune cells or mediate allergic reactions
Memory B-cells Lie In Wait For: A second exposure to a pathogen and can then mount a more rapid and vigorous immune response (secondary response)
Cell-mediated (Cytotoxic) Immunity Is Centered On: The functions of T-cells
T-Cells Undergo Maturation In The Thymus Through Positive Selection, Which Is: Only selects for T-cells that can react to antigen presented on MHC
T-Cells Undergo Maturation In The Thymus Through Negative Selection, Which Is: Causes apoptosis in self-reactive T-cells
The Peptide Hormone, Thymosin, Promotes: T-cell development
Helper T-Cells (Th or CD4+) Respond To: Antigen on MHC-II and coordinate the rest of the immune system, which secretes lymphokines to activate various arms of immune defense.
Th1 Cells Secrete Interfuron Gamma, Which: Activates macrophages
Th2 Cells Activate: B-cells
Cytotoxic T-cells (Tc, CTL, or CD8+) Respond To: Antigen on MHC-I and kill virally infected cells
Suppressor (Regulatory) T-cells (Treg) Tone Down The Immune Response After: An infection and promote self-tolerance
Memory T-Cells Serve A Similar Function To: Memory B-cells
In Autoimmune Conditions, A Self-antigen Is Recognized As: Foreign and the immune system attacks normal cells
In Allergic Reactions, Nonthreatening Exposures Incite: An inflammatory response
Immunization Is A Method Of Inducing: Active immunity (activation of B-cells that produce antibodies to an antigen) prior to exposure to a particular pathogen
Passive Immunity Is The: Transfer of antibodies to an individual
The Lymphatic System Is: A circulatory system that consists of one-way vessels with intermittent lymph nodes
The Lymphatic System Connects To The Cardiovascular System Via: Thoracic duct in the posterior chest
The Lymphatic System: Equalizes fluid distribution, transports fats and fat-soluble compounds in chylomicrons, and provides sites for mounting of immune responses
Created by: SamB91
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