Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

MCAT Bio. Ch. 8

Innate Immunity (Nonspecific Immunity) Composed of defenses that are always active but cannot target a specific invader and cannot maintain immunologic memory
Adaptive Immunity (Specific Immunity) Composed of defenses that take time to activate, but that target a specific invalder and can maintain immunologic memory
Immune Cells Come From: The bone marrow
The Spleen And Lymph Nodes Are Sites Where: Immune responses can be mounted, and in which B-cells are activated
Thymus Is The Site Of: T-cell maturation
Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) Includes: The tonsils and adenoids
Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) Are Involved In: Immune defenses
The Skin Acts As: A physical barrier and secretes antimicrobial compounds like defensins
Mucus On Mucous Membranes: Trap pathogens. In the respiratory system, the mucus is propelled upward by cilia and can be swallowed or expelled.
Tears And Saliva Contain: Lysozyme, an antibacterial compound
The Stomach Produces Acid, Which: Kills most pathogens. Colonization of the gut helps prevent overgrowth by pathogenic bacteria through competition.
Complement System Can Punch Holes In: The cell walls of bacteria which makes them osmotically unstable
Interferons Are Given Off by Virally Infected Cells And Help: Prevent viral replication and dispersion to nearby cells
Macrophages Ingest: Pathogens and present them on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. They also secrete cytokines.
MHC Class I (MHC-I) Is Present In: All nucleated cells and displays endogenous antigen (proteins from within the cell) to cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ cells)
MHC Class II (MHC-II) Is Present In: Professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, dendritic cells, some B-cells, and certain activated epithelial cells) and displays exogenous antigen (protein from outside the cell) to helper T-cells (CD4+ cells)
Dendritic Cells Are: Antigen-presenting cells in the skin
Natural Killer Cells: Attack cells not presenting MHC molecules which includes virally infected cells and cancer cells
Granulocytes Include: Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Neutrophils Ingest: Bacteria, particularly opsonized bacteria (those marked with antibodies). They can follow bacteria using chemotaxis
Eosinophils Are Used In: Allergic reactions and invasive parasitic infections. They release histamine, which causes an inflammatory response
Basophils Are Used In: Allergic reactions
Mast Cells Are Related Cells To Basophils Found: In the skin
Humoral Immunity Is Centered On: Antibody production by plasma cells which are activated B-cells
Antibodies Target A Particular: Antigen. They contain two heavy chains and two light chains. They have a constant region and a variable region.
The Tip Of The Variable Region Of An Antibody Is: The antigen-binding region
When Activated, The Antigen-binding Region Undergoes: Hypermutation to improve the specificity of the antibody produced.
Cells May Be Given To Switch: Isotypes of antibody (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, IgA)
Circulating Antibodies Can Opsonize: Pathogens (which means to mark them for destruction), cause agglutination (clumping) into insoluble complexes that are ingested by phagocytes or neutralize pathogens
Cell-surface Antibodies Can Activate: Immune cells or mediate allergic reactions
Memory B-cells Lie In Wait For: A second exposure to a pathogen and can then mount a more rapid and vigorous immune response (secondary response)
Cell-mediated (Cytotoxic) Immunity Is Centered On: The functions of T-cells
T-Cells Undergo Maturation In The Thymus Through Positive Selection, Which Is: Only selects for T-cells that can react to antigen presented on MHC
T-Cells Undergo Maturation In The Thymus Through Negative Selection, Which Is: Causes apoptosis in self-reactive T-cells
The Peptide Hormone, Thymosin, Promotes: T-cell development
Helper T-Cells (Th or CD4+) Respond To: Antigen on MHC-II and coordinate the rest of the immune system, which secretes lymphokines to activate various arms of immune defense.
Th1 Cells Secrete Interfuron Gamma, Which: Activates macrophages
Th2 Cells Activate: B-cells
Cytotoxic T-cells (Tc, CTL, or CD8+) Respond To: Antigen on MHC-I and kill virally infected cells
Suppressor (Regulatory) T-cells (Treg) Tone Down The Immune Response After: An infection and promote self-tolerance
Memory T-Cells Serve A Similar Function To: Memory B-cells
In Autoimmune Conditions, A Self-antigen Is Recognized As: Foreign and the immune system attacks normal cells
In Allergic Reactions, Nonthreatening Exposures Incite: An inflammatory response
Immunization Is A Method Of Inducing: Active immunity (activation of B-cells that produce antibodies to an antigen) prior to exposure to a particular pathogen
Passive Immunity Is The: Transfer of antibodies to an individual
The Lymphatic System Is: A circulatory system that consists of one-way vessels with intermittent lymph nodes
The Lymphatic System Connects To The Cardiovascular System Via: Thoracic duct in the posterior chest
The Lymphatic System: Equalizes fluid distribution, transports fats and fat-soluble compounds in chylomicrons, and provides sites for mounting of immune responses
Created by: SamB91