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Clinical Nutrition 1

Final for NWHSU Clinical nutrition 1

QuestionAnswer
Calcium UL 2000 mg
Calcium RDA 9-18= 1300mg ; adult= 1000m-1200f ; adult 71+ = 1200mg
Calcium function cofactor in blood clotting ; Cell signaling for nerve, muscle, insulin ; structural for bone and tooth
Calcium deficiency Osteoporosis, muscle cramping, abnormal blood clotting, deficiency of Mg, Na, HCl
Calcium theraputics Osteoporosis, kidney stones, hypertension, colon cancer, lead toxicity, PMS
Calcium toxicity ONLY FROM SUPPLEMENTS, kidney stones, hypercalcemia
What increases Calcium deficiency risk sodium excess, loss of HCl, Mg excess, Mg def, menopause
What diet components interfere with Calcium? Protein intake >20%, phosphorus, oxalates, Phytic acid, sodium, alcohol
Magnesium UL 350mg- causes loose stool
Magnesium RDA Adults >31 420mg M 320mg F
Magnesium function energy production ; synthesis of nucleic acids and glutathione ; cell signaling, ion transport, and structural(same as Ca) ; Cell migration (different from Ca)
Magnesium deficiency RARE, neuro, personality, muscular cramping, chronic kidney failure,
Risk of Magnesium deficiency GI & renal disorders, alcohol, age
Magnesium therapeutics Hypertension, cramping, asthma, diabetes, osteoporosis, migranes
Magnesium Toxicity Chronic kidney failure, GI disturbances,
Potassium UL NONE
Potassium RDI Adults >19 = 4700mg
Potassium Function Energy metabolism, Na/K pump, Pyruvare kinase -> carbohydrate metabolism
Potassium deficiency Hypokalemia- fatigue, cramps, arrhythmias
Risk of Potassium deficiency Alcoholics, diuretics, vomiting, diarrhea
Potassium therapeutics Hypertension, stroke, kidney stones, osteoporosis
Potassium toxicity Hyperkalemia- tingling, arrythmias, lower bp(adrenal fatigue) from decreased aldosterone
Potassium RDI vs average consumption RDI= 4700mg, AVERAGE= 3100mg MEN, 2300mg WOMEN
Sodium UL Na=2300, NaCl (salt) = 5800
Sodium RDI Na=1500mg , NaCl=3800
Calculate dietary salt intake Na x 2.5 = NaCl
Sodium function Membrane potential, Na/K pump, Maintain blood pressure and volume
Sodium deficiency Not from decreased intake ; hyponatremia- cerebral edema, seizures, coma
Risk of Sodium deficiency Vomit, diarrhea, exercise, sweating, increased fluid retention, endurance exercises
Sodium therapeutics Salt restriction helps with gastric cancer, osteoporosis, kidney stones, and hypertension
Sodium toxicity Hypernatremia- excess water loss+ decrease water intake, kidney failure rarely from excess salt intake, excess sodium leads to increased ECF volume
Compare RDI of salt vs average consumption RDI=3800mg AVERAGE= 7800-11,800 MALE ; 5800- 7800 FEMALE
DASH diet Diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish, nuts, and low-fat dairy. This lead to Lower BP and higher K
Salt reduction controversial If you take too little salt in it can be more detrimental than taking in too much salt. Ideal range is 3-6grams
Iron RDI Adults= 8mg MALE, 18mg FEMALE, 27mg PREGNANT
Iron Facts 2/3 is in functional form, remainder stored in liver and bone marrow, power oxidant and potential harmful, copper INCREASES absorption, Calcium DECREASES absorption
Iron function O2 transport and storage, energy production, Enzyme function- Anti oxidant, Pro oxidant, DNA synthesis
Iron deficiency Most common deficiency in the world, remember from clin path
Iron therapeutics poor intellectual development, lead toxicity, Restless leg syndrome, impaired immune functions
Iron toxicity largest case of poisoning in children under 6, stained teeth, dark stools
What enhances/ inhibits iron absorption Enhance: VIt. C, organic acids, meat, fish, poultry ; Inhibits: Phytic acid, polyphenols, soy protein
Zinc UL 40mg
Zinc RDI 11mg MALES ; 8mg FEMALES
Zinc food sources Cashews, chickpeas, almonds
Zinc function Catalytic role in 100 enzymes, regulatory role in gene expression cell signaling and apoptosis, structural role
Zinc deficiency copper, iron, calicum, and folic acid impair zinc absorption, impaired tasted, poor wound healing, night blindness
Zinc therapeutics Impaired growth and development, weak immune function, common cold, diabetes, macular degeneration
Zinc toxicity Abdominal pain and diarrhea, GI distress at 50-150 mg, also anosmia-loss of sense of smell
Most abundant intracellular trace element Zinc
Zinc and copper relationship Zinc affects copper bioavailability 10/1 ratio, 60mg/day will interfeare
Copper UL 10,000 ug or 10mg
Copper RDI 900ug or .9mg
Copper function Energy production, CT formation, Iron metabolism, melanin, MAO, antioxidant, gene expression
Copper deficiency Very uncommon- anemia, loss of pigmentation, impaired growth, osteoporosos,
Increased risk of Copper deficiency infants fed exclusive cows milk formula, premature infants, malabsorption syndromes
Copper Therapeutics Immune system, osteoporosis, produces LDL oxidation in vitro(bad), provides antioxidant protection, lack of reliable biomarker for Cu nutritional status
Copper toxicity Wilson's disease= accumulation in liver and brain, liver damage with long term use
Chromium UL NOT ESTABLISHED
Chromium RDI 35ug MALE ; 25ug FEMALE
Chromium function enhances insulin, active component in GTF
Chromium deficiency Impaired glucose tolerance, endurance exercise requires chromium, increased cholesterol and TG, peripheral neuropathy from diabetes
Chromium therapeutics Useful in hypoglycemics, CVD,
Chromium toxicity impared liver function
HEXAVALENT chromium vs TRIVALENT chromium hexavalent is toxic (IV) and Trivalent is nontoxic (III)
Iodine UL**** 1100 ug or 1.1mg
Iodine RDI 150 ug or .15mg
Iodine function Thyroid hormone synthesis. T3 active, T4 inactive; requires selenium to convert T4 to T3
Iodine deficiency Selenium, iron, and Vit.A deficiency exacerbate iodine deficiency, cretinism, hypothyroid, goiter,
Iodine therapeutics hypothyroid, thyroid cancer, fibrocystic breast condition
Iodine toxicity Rare, hypothyroidusm, hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer
Selenium UL 400 ug
Selenium RDI 55ug
Selenium function selenoproteins- glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductase, idothyronine deiodinases
Selenium deficiency increase cancer, weak immune, kashin-beck disease, muscle weakness, keshan disease
Selenium therapeutics cancer prevention, CVD, Viral infection
Selenium toxicity Selenosis(850mg) brittle nails, GI problems, garlic breath(sulfur)
Fluoride UL 10mg
Fluoride RDA 4mg MALE, 3mg FEMALE
Americans consume how many grams of sodium a day? 3.4g
Who does food industry blame for their effors to reduce salt appetite for salt
who wins with a salt controversy food industry
how long was DASH study 1 month
What is the problem wit h salt-hypertension hypothesis? We dont know if it does kill us prematurly
Howmuch salt in american diet comes from processed foods? 80%Renin
Less salt = higher _____By decreasing sodium, food industry had to put more ______ sugar
Assesment of data supporting salt hypothesis inconsistant and contradictory
How did the food industry divert attention from salt? fund research on calcium
The consistancy of salt consumption suggests how much salt we eat is drived from ______ Physiological needs
Created by: tshermer